Association between foot types defined by static and dynamic measures, and the centre of pressure during gait
© Liao et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Published: 8 April 2014
Foot types (e.g. pronated, supinated foot) are used for clinical reasoning  and widely assumed to be related to centre of pressure (COP) patterns [2, 3]. Specifically, a pronated foot will demonstrate a medially deviated COP. It follows that COP could be a measure of foot type and inferences about function extrapolated from it. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether COP parameters differ between foot types.
Foot Posture Index(FPI)
Resting Calcaneal Stance Position (RCSP)
Difference between NCSP* and RCSP
Peak Rearfoot Eversion(PRE)
Time of Peak Rear foot Eversion (TPRE)
Range of Rearfoot Eversion (RRE)
Maximum Mid Foot Dorsiflexion
Pronated feet (based on FPI) demonstrated more medial excursion of the COP from heel strike to heel off (p<0.05). Pronated feet classified by NCSP-RCSP demonstrated higher COP_I during HO-TO (p<0.05).
Supinated feet classified by NCSP-RCSP and RRE had more medial excursion of the COP (COP-ME) during HO-TO (p<0.05). Feet classified as supinated by TPRE resulted in a greater COP-LMD in a stance (p<0.05) and their COP_I was statistically significantly higher. Feet classified as supinated by RRE showed higher COP-LMD value during HO-TO (p<0.05). The statistical results showed a weak relationship between COP parameters of different foot types (r<0.27). Dynamic measures of foot type showed a slightly stringer association to COP measures than static measures of foot type.
Over all, whilst there were some differences between foot types in some COP measures, the meaning of the observed differences does not support the hypothesis that COP parameters are strongly indicative of specific foot types. Thus, COP measures should not be used to infer foot kinematic nor foot function.
- Rao Smita, Riskowsk L Jody, Hannan T Marian: Musculoskeletal conditions of the foot and ankle: Assessments and treatment options. Review Article Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 2012, 26 (3): 345-368. 10.1016/j.berh.2012.05.009.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dixon SJ: Application of Centre-of-Pressure Data to Indicate Rear foot Inversion-Eversion in Shod Running. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 2006, 96 (4): 305-12.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Han TR, Paik NJ, Im MS: Quantification of the path of centre of pressure (COP) using an F-scan in-shoe transducer. 1999, 10: 248-54.Google Scholar
- Redmond AC, Crane1 YZ, Menz HB: Normative values for the Foot Posture Index. Journal of Foot and Ankle Research. 2008, 1 (6):Google Scholar
- Sobel Ellen, et al: Re-evaluation of the Relaxed Calcaneal Stance Position- Reliability and Normal Values in Children and Adults. J Am Podiatric Med. Assoc. 1999, 89 (5): 258-64.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Landorf K, Keenan AM, Rushworth RL: Foot Orthosis Prescription Habits of Australian and New Zealand Podiatric Physicians. J Am Podiatric Med. Assoc. 2001, 91 (4): 174-83.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.