Skip to main content

Advertisement

Sailing charted seas: biomechanics and the orthopedic surgeon

Article metrics

  • 2226 Accesses

Introduction

Biomechanical models have been used to study the distribution of foot forces, metatarsal stresses, heel pad, arch height, plantar aponeurosis, subtalar joint, extrinsic muscles, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, subtalar arthroereisis and lateral column lengthening calcaneal osteotomy in the normal and flatfoot. We review past research data and discuss results as they relate to relevant clinical topics. [16]

Methods

A three dimensional multi-segment biomechanical model [7] was used with anatomical data from normal feet, feet made flat and corrected feet. The model includes a series of equations that describe how the foot deforms under a theoretical applied load of 683 Newtons (70 Kg.) on one foot in static stance phase

Results

Lateral Column Lengthening Calcaneal Osteotomy (LCL) decreases the forces needed by ligaments to resist moments at the medial arch joints by -79% and the talo-navicular Joint -63% in the flattened foot.

Table 1 Moments in Newton-meters (N-m)
Figure 1
figure1

Cadaver Foot with calibrated cage and pointer for Direct Linear Transformation Photography illustrating LCL.

Conclusion

The model has accurately predicted the deformation of the foot under a theoretical load of 683 Newtons. We have analyzed the effect of various surgical procedures on the flatfoot. We discussed the clinical relevance of the model data to the ankle sprain, 5th metatarsal stress fracture, posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, the flatfoot and the cavus foot.

References

  1. 1.

    Arangio GA, et al: Clin Biomech. 2007, 22: 472-477. 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2006.11.004.

  2. 2.

    Arangio GA, et al: Clin Biomech. 2004, 19: 847-852. 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2003.11.002.

  3. 3.

    Arangio GA, et al: Clin Biomech. 2001, 16: 539-539. 10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00011-0.

  4. 4.

    Arangio GA, et al: Foot Ankle Int. 2000, 21: 216-220.

  5. 5.

    Arangio GA, et al: Foot and Ankle Surgery. 1998, 4: 123-128. 10.1046/j.1460-9584.1998.00104.x.

  6. 6.

    Arangio GA, et al: Clin Orthop. 1997, 339: 227-231. 10.1097/00003086-199706000-00031.

  7. 7.

    Salathe EP, et al: J Biomech Eng. 2002, 124: 241-281. 10.1115/1.1468865.

Download references

Acknowledgement

Eric P Salathe Sr. PhD.

Author information

Correspondence to George A Arangio.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Keywords

  • Ankle Sprain
  • Biomechanical Model
  • Subtalar Joint
  • Posterior Tibial Tendon
  • Extrinsic Muscle