Volume 7 Supplement 1

4th Congress of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics Community

Open Access

Dynamic barefoot plantar pressure in gait and foot type biomechanics

  • Jinsup Song1Email author,
  • Howard J Hillstrom2,
  • Michael Neary3,
  • Kersti Choe1,
  • William Brechue3,
  • Rebecca A Zifchock3,
  • Steve Svoboda3,
  • Jim Furmato1,
  • Mandy Gibbons2,
  • Ibadete Thaqi2,
  • Jocelyn Hafer2,
  • Siobhan Mangan2,
  • Stephen Bartalini2 and
  • Marian T Hannan4
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research20147(Suppl 1):A77


Published: 8 April 2014

Song et al demonstrated that healthy subjects with planus and neutral foot type exhibited a distinguishable foot posture and dynamic foot function [1]. However, such a relationship has not been demonstrated in a large sample study.

Foot structure was categorized into one of three foot types (cavus, neutral, and planus) based on the standing arch height index (AHI) in 1,054 incoming cadets at the US Military Academy (172 female, 18.5±1.1 years, 24.5±3.0 kg/m2) [2]. Five trials of barefoot dynamic planar pressure were obtained for each foot with the Novel emed-x (novel GmbH, Munich) using the two-step method for walking data acquisition. The Center of Pressure Excursion Index (CPEI, %) and the peak pressure (PP, in kiloPascal) were calculated for each trial. Analysis of Variance was performed across the foot type groups on the left foot.

The cavus group exhibited the largest CPEI while the planus group demonstrated the smallest CPEI. The neutral group demonstrated the lowest peak pressure, which was significantly lower than the planus group. Results of this study provide additional evidence which support the link between the dynamic plantar pressure in gait and foot type biomechanics.
Table 1

The mean Center of Pressure Excursion Index and the Peak Pressure are shown for three foot type groups. The analysis was limited to left foot only.






N (female)

53 (5)

184 (29)

711 (121)


CPEI (%)

23.07 ± 7.46

21.01 ± 6.53

20.39 ± 6.82

0.0168 a

PP (kN)

578.5 ± 140.6

552.8 ± 139.2

600.4 ± 168.2

<0.0001 c

A significant difference (P<0.05) was observed between a the cavus and planus foot types and c between neutral and planus foot types.



Volunteers from the New York College of Podiatric Medicine, Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine, the Hospital for Special Surgery, and Novel GmbH were instrumental in the collection of these data. We appreciate the study participants and support of the United States Military Academy.

Authors’ Affiliations

Temple University School of Podiatric Medicine
Hospital for Special Surgery
United States Military Academy
Hebrew Senior Life, Harvard Medical School


  1. Song J, Hillstrom HJ, Secord D, Levitt J: Foot type biomechanics: comparison of planus and rectus foot types. J Am Podiatri Med Assoc. 1996, 86: 16-23.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Hillstrom HJ, Song J, Kraszewski AP, Hafer JF, Moontanah R, Dufour AB, Chow BS, Deland JT: Foot type biomechanics part 1: structure and function of the asymptomatic foot. Gait Posture. 2013, 37: 445-51. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.09.007.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar


© Song et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.