Volume 7 Supplement 1
Effects of boundary conditions on foot behaviour in the standing position in 3D finite element foot model
© Johnson and Ou; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
Published: 8 April 2014
The most common physical injuries are injuries of the lower extremity. In fact, controlled studies on highly physically active groups such as athletes and military personnel show that five injury types are repeatedly cited as accounting for over 50 percent of all training injuries: stress fractures, overuse injuries of the knee, Plantar Fasciitis, Achilles Tendonitis, and ankle sprains [1–5].
Three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) of the foot in the standing position allows researchers to analyze the relationship between foot behavior and orthotic designs, which may help to relieve or prevent such injuries. Various 3D FEA models of the foot in the standing position show very different boundary conditions, including: fixing the fibula and tibia at different points between the ankle and knee, fixing the talus, and applying slip/no-slip conditions in the articular surfaces [6–12]. This may have a large effect on overall foot stiffness and the strain of the Plantar Aponeurosis.
This study is developed to investigate the influence of these boundary conditions on the overall foot stiffness and strain in the Plantar Aponeurosis in the standing position.
Varying slip/no slip conditions at the articular surfaces (Tibia/Talus, Fibula/Talus, Talus/Calcaneous, Talus/Navicular, Calcaneous/Cuboid);
Fixing/Pinning different points between the proximal and distal ends of the tibia and fibula;
Applying Achilles tendon forces of different magnitudes;
The result shows that changing boundary conditions has a large effect on the overall foot stiffness and strain in the Plantar Aponeurosis.
This analysis provides researchers conducting 3D finite element analysis on the foot with a guide on which parameters, especially the force-displacement boundary conditions, have the largest effect on particular foot behaviors. This is critical in later analyzing the interaction between the foot and new orthotic designs.
- Gardner LI, Dziados JE, Jones BH, Brundage JF, Harris JM, Sullivan R, Gill P: Prevention of lower extremity stress fractures: a controlled trial of a shock absorbent insole. Am J Public Health. 1988, 78: 1563-1567. 10.2105/AJPH.78.12.1563.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones BH: Overuse injuries of the lower extremities associated with marching, jogging, and running: a review. Mil Med. 1983, 148: 783-787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones BH, Knapik JJ: Physical training and exercise-related injuries. Surveillance, research and injury prevention in military populations. Sports Med. 1999, 27: 111-125. 10.2165/00007256-199927020-00004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kowal DM: Nature and causes of injuries in women resulting from an endurance training program. Am J Sports Med. 1980, 8: 265-269. 10.1177/036354658000800410.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reinker KA, Ozburne S: A comparison of male and female orthopaedic pathology in basic training. Mil Med. 1979, 144: 532-536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu Q-H, Yu B, JIN D, Zhang M-C, Hu Y-J, Wang D, Luo J-W: Construction of a finite element model of normal human foot and ankle. Chin J Orthop Trauma. 2010, 12:Google Scholar
- Chen W-P, Tang F-T, Ju C-W: Stress distribution of the foot during mid-stance to push-off in barefoot gait: a 3-D finite element analysis. Clin Biomech. 2001, 16: 614-620. 10.1016/S0268-0033(01)00047-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bandak FA, Tannous RE, Toridis T: On the development of an osseo-ligamentous finite element model of the human ankle joint. Int J Solids Struct. 2001, 38: 1681-1697. 10.1016/S0020-7683(00)00129-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gefen A: Stress analysis of the standing foot following surgical plantar fascia release. J Biomech. 2002, 35: 629-637. 10.1016/S0021-9290(01)00242-1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tao K, Wang D, Wang C, Wang X, Liu A, Nester CJ, Howard D: An In Vivo Experimental Validation of a Computational Model of Human Foot. J Bionic Eng. 2009, 6: 387-397.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chueng JT-M, Zhang M: A 3-Dimensional Finite Element Model of the Human Foot and Ankle for Insole Design. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2005, 86: 353-360. 10.1016/j.apmr.2004.03.031.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Antunes PJ, Dias GR, Coelho AT, Rebelo F, Pereira T: Non-Linear Finite Element Modelling of Anatomically Detailed 3D Foot Model. 2008Google Scholar
- Kogler GF, Solomonidis SE, Paul JP: In vitro method for quantifying the effectiveness of the longitudinal arch support mechanism of a foot orthosis. Clin Biomech. 1995, 10: 245-252. 10.1016/0268-0033(95)99802-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sharkey NA, Hamel AJ: A dynamic cadaver model of the stance phase of gait: performance characteristics and kinetic validation. Clin Biomech. 1998, 13: 420-433. 10.1016/S0268-0033(98)00003-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.