Skip to main content


In vivo, intrinsic kinematics of the foot and ankle

Article metrics

  • 2156 Accesses


There are obvious problems involved in the accurate description of movement of the intrinsic bones within the foot and ankle. The 26 small bones are difficult, if not impossible to individually represent with standard skin mounted markers for motion analysis [1, 2]. This international research collaboration has performed a number of studies in which invasively inserted intracortical pins are used for anchoring reflective markers, thereby providing a direct representation of the kinematics of the individual segments.

Materials and methods

A number of experimental sessions have been performed at Karolinska Institute. The intracortical pins were inserted by experienced orthopaedic surgeons under sterile conditions and using local anaesthetics (Figure 1). Triads of reflective markers were attached to the protruding ends of the pins and standard video based motion analysis (Qualysis, Sweden) conducted. Data have been published concerning walking [3] and slow running [4] and more recent work has for the first time investigated applied scientific questions such as the effect of shoe manipulations and in-shoe orthotics.

Figure 1

Computer tomography images of the marker locations on intracortical pins in foot and ankle segments.


Table 1 Mean total ranges of motion (ROM) and standard deviations of motion about selected joints in the sagittal, frontal and transverse planes during walking. Data from six healthy, male subjects. From Lundgren et al., 2008.


A large range of fundamental data concerning foot and ankle kinematics during walking and running and with various manipulations have been collected and will be presented.


  1. 1.

    Nester C, et al: Foot kinematics during walking measured using bone and surface mounted markers. J Biomech. 2007, 40: 3412-3423. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2007.05.019.

  2. 2.

    Westblad P, et al: Differences in Ankle-Joint Complex Motion during the Stance Phase of Walking as measured by Superficial or Bone anchored Markers. Foot Ankle Int. 2002, 23: 856-863.

  3. 3.

    Lundgren P, et al: Invasive, in vivo measurement of rear, mid and forefoot motion during walking. Gait Posture. 2008, 28: 93-100. 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2007.10.009.

  4. 4.

    Arndt A, et al: Intrinsic foot kinematics measured in vivo during the stance phase of slow running. J Biomech. 2007, 40: 2672-2678. 10.1016/j.jbiomech.2006.12.009.

Download references

Author information

Correspondence to Toni Arndt.

Rights and permissions

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article


  • Motion Analysis
  • Research Collaboration
  • Scientific Question
  • Individual Segment
  • Small Bone