Volume 1 Supplement 1
A finite element foot model for simulating muscle imbalances
© Ledoux et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Published: 26 September 2008
To overcome the expense and limitations of cadaveric testing, we developed a finite element (FE) foot model. Previous foot models have included hyperelastic materials, plantar fascia, and extrinsic muscle forces . We also included the plantar fat pad and both distal and proximal cartilage in our model. We validated the model by comparing plantar pressures and joint angles to literature sources and cadaveric testing data.
For the neutral balanced standing simulation, 11 of 18 bone rotation angles fall within two standard deviations of the cadaveric data and all peak plantar pressure values are within one standard deviation.
Our anatomically detailed FE foot model simulated correct plantar pressures, but the bone rotations are not all correct. It is possible that including cartilage at all foot joints and using wider ligament origins and insertions may address these issues. Future simulations include a clawed hallux and a flatfoot model. Future work on the model includes intrinsic muscles, wider ligaments and more cartilage.
Dept. of Veterans Affairs grant A2661C.
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This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.