Volume 5 Supplement 1

3rd Congress of the International Foot and Ankle Biomechanics (i-FAB) Community

Open Access

Three-dimensional ankle kinematics in children’s school shoes during running

  • Caleb Wegener1Email author,
  • Damien O’Meara2,
  • Adrienne E Hunt1,
  • Joshua Burns3,
  • Benedicte Vanwanseele4,
  • Andrew Greene1 and
  • Richard M Smith1
Journal of Foot and Ankle Research20125(Suppl 1):O20

DOI: 10.1186/1757-1146-5-S1-O20

Published: 10 April 2012

Background

Children are more active during the school day than at other times [1] and because school shoes are required as part of a uniform in many countries research on school shoes is required. This study aimed to determine the effect of school shoes on the ankle joint complex motion of children while running.

Materials and methods

Twenty children (mean age 9 years (SD2.3)) performed five running trials at a self-selected velocity barefoot and wearing school shoes (Daytona, Clarks) in a random order. A 14 camera 200Hz motion analysis system (EVaRT5.0, MAC) was used to calculate marker trajectories. Markers were attached to the right leg and a cluster wand was attached to the calcaneus through a window in the shoe. A standing reference trial was used to embed segment axes and then calculate ankle joint complex motion. Force plate data were collected at 1000Hz (Kistler™). Data were normalised to the stance phase and sub-phases partitioned from the anterior/posterior force data as: loading (initial-contact – maximum-negative force); mid-stance (maximum-negative force – zero) and propulsion (positive force – toe-off).

Results

Shoes delayed the maximum-posterior force (22.8% to 29.3%; p<0.0001) and the zero crossing of the anterior-posterior force (41.1% to 43.6%; p=0.021). During loading shoes increased ankle range of motion (ROM) in the sagittal (9.9° to 13.8°; p=0.007) and transverse planes (5.7° to 7.7°; p=0.007). During midstance shoes decreased ankle frontal plane ROM (3.7° to 2.8°; p=0.037). During propulsion shoes increased ankle ROM in the sagittal plan (30.3° to 33.3°; p=0.018) and decreased frontal plane ROM (14.4° to 12.0°; p=0.042). Overall stance phase sagittal plane ROM increased in shoes (31.2° to 34.2°; p=0.034).

Conclusions

This study shows that school shoes increase sagittal ankle motion during loading and propulsion, but decrease frontal plane motion during mid-stance and propulsion. These findings will assist in harmonising school shoe design with foot function.

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Discipline of Exercise and Sports Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney
(2)
New South Wales Institute of Sport
(3)
Faculty of Health Sciences, The University of Sydney / Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead
(4)
Research Centre for Exercise and Health, KULeuven, Leuven, Belgium / Chair Health Innovation and Technology, Fontys University of Applied Sciences

References

  1. Page A, Cooper AR, Stamatakis E, Foster LJ, Crowne EC, Sabin M, Shield JP: Physical activity patterns in nonobese and obese children assessed using minute-by-minute accelerometry. Int J Obes (Lond). 2005, 29: 1070-1076. 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802993.View ArticleGoogle Scholar

Copyright

© Wegener et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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