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Table 2 MITI coding results of audiotaped interactions of MI-trained (N = 14) and non-MI-trained podiatrists (N = 4)

From: Attitudes and experiences towards the application of motivational interviewing by podiatrists working with people with diabetes at high-risk of developing foot ulcers: a mixed-methods study

MITI variable MI-trained Podiatrists Mean (SD; Range) Non-MI-trained Podiatrists Mean (SD; Range) P-values
Global scores – Relational
 Partnership 2.71 (0.70; 1.50–4.00) 2.13 (0.25; 2.00–2.50) 0.114
 Empathy 3.57 (0.78; 2.00–5.00) 1.75 (0.96; 1.00–3.00) 0.008 *
Global scores – Technical
 Change talk 3.18 (1.03; 1.00–5.00) 1.25 (0.50; 1.00–2.00) 0.008 *
 Soften sustain 3.04 (0.57; 2.00–4.00) 3.00 (0.00; 3.00–3.00) 0.788
Behaviour counts
 Questions 13.75 (7.68; 4.00–31.00) 8.75 (6.40; 0.00–14.00) 0.489
 Simple Reflection 9.11 (5.60; 2.00–21.00) 1.38 (1.49; 0.00–3.50) 0.008 *
 Complex Reflection 3.00 (2.65; 0.00–9.00) 1.50 (1.68; 0.50–4.00) 0.179
 Giving Information 2.86 (2.11; 0.00–7.00) 5.00 (7.44; 0.00-–6.00) 0.788
 Persuade with Permission 0.57 (0.94; 0.00–2.00) 0.25 (0.50; 0.00–1.00) 0.684
MI-adherent behaviour
 Affirm 3.75 (3.33; 0.00–12.00) 0.63 (0.95; 0.00–2.00) 0.036 *
 Seeking Collaboration 0.57 (0.85; 0.00–3.00) 0.25 (0.50; 0.00–1.00) 0.496
 Emphasising Autonomy 0.11 (0.30; 0.00–1.00) 0.25 (0.50; 0.00–1.00) 0.567
 MI-adherent behaviour total 4.43 (3.94; 0.00–15.00) 1.13 (1.93;0.00–4.00) 0.076
MI-non-adherent behaviour
 Persuade 3.36 (2.73; 0.00–8.00) 1.38 (1.25; 0.00–3.00) 0.197
 Confront 0.50 (0.96; 0.00–3.50) 0.13 (0.25; 0.00–0.50) 0.526
 MI-non-adherent behaviour total 3.86 (3.49;0.00–11.50) 1.50 (1.29; 0.00–3.00) 0.216
MITI summary scores
 Relational score 3.14 (0.71; 2.00–4.50) 1.94 (0.43; 1.50–2.50) 0.009 *
 Technical score 3.11 (0.66; 1.50–4.50) 2.13 (0.25; 2.00–2.50) 0.011 *
 Reflection to question ratio 1.02 (0.64; 0.10–2.83) 0.29 (0.10; 0.19–0.38) 0.023 *
 Percentage complex reflections 23.42 (15.35; 0.00–57.14) 56.46 (40.49; 12.50–100.00) 0.136
  1. Note: SD standard deviation
  2. * Significantly different between groups, p < 0.05
  3. § Lower Persuade or Giving Information scores indicate better MI-adherence