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Table 1 Characteristics and physical data of the participants (n = 54)

From: Toe grip force of the dominant foot is associated with fall risk in community-dwelling older adults: a cross-sectional study

  Overall Fall group Non-fall group  
Variable (n = 54) (n = 8) (n = 46) p
Age, years 72.2 ± 6.0 73.6 ± 5.2 71.3 ± 5.9 0.307
Sex, men/women 25/29 3/5 22/24 0.441
DF, right/left 50/4 7/1 43/3 0.484
Height, cm 160.0 ± 9.2 159.0 ± 8.1 160.2 ± 9.4 0.742
Weight, kg 57.7 ± 10.3 54.2 ± 11.3 58.3 ± 10.1 0.306
BMI 22.4 ± 2.9 21.2 ± 2.8 22.6 ± 2.9 0.212
MMSE, score 28.8 ± 1.5 28.1 ± 2.0 28.9 ± 1.5 0.173
TPDS, mm
 TODF 16.9 ± 5.9 18.8 ± 5.4 16.5 ± 6.0 0.320
 HODF 22.1 ± 8.9 24.8 ± 11.1 21.6 ± 8.5 0.349
 TONDF 17.2 ± 5.2 15.8 ± 4.0 17.5 ± 5.4 0.419
 HONDF 23.0 ± 9.0 27.7 ± 7.2 22.2 ± 9.1 0.115
 Thenar asymmetry 18.7 ± 23.1 26.8 ± 35.7 17.3 ± 20.4 0.291
 Heel asymmetry 26.6 ± 39.3 28.6 ± 29.0 26.2 ± 41.1 0.874
QFMS, Nm/kg
 DF 1.30 ± 0.36 1.25 ± 0.48 1.30 ± 0.34 0.714
 Non-DF 1.21 ± 0.34 1.13 ± 0.38 1.22 ± 0.34 0.511
 Asymmetry −11.2 ± 8.6 −12.3 ± 5.2 − 11.0 ± 9.1 0.687
TGF, percentage weight ratio; %
 DF 25.3 ± 11.0 17.8 ± 8.2 26.6 ± 10.9 0.033
 Non-DF 24.2 ± 10.5 19.2 ± 9.2 25.1 ± 10.5 0.142
 Asymmetry −14.1 ± 11.5 −16.0 ± 11.8 13.8 ± 11.5 0.621
  1. Data indicate mean ± standard deviation
  2. BMI body mass index, MMSE Mini-Mental State Examination, TPDS two-point discrimination sensory, TODF thenar of dominant foot, HODF heel of dominant foot, TONDF thenar of non-dominant foot, HONDF heel of non-dominant foot, QFMS quadriceps femoris muscle strength, DF dominant foot, Non-DF non-dominant foot, TGF toe grip force