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Table 5 Hierarchical multiple linear regression investigating factors associated with foot/ankle pain severity, as measured via MOXFQ-index

From: Pain catastrophising, body mass index and depressive symptoms are associated with pain severity in tertiary referral orthopaedic foot/ankle patients

   Unstandardised Bcoefficients (95% CI) Standardised β-coefficients P value
Block 1: Demographic variables Age 0.17 (−0.09 to 0.43) 0.11 0.201
Sex (female) 1.25 (−6.10 to 8.60) 0.03 0.738
Body mass index 1.18 (0.59 to 1.77) 0.33 < 0.001
Block 2: Addition of psychological variables Age 0.26 (0.04 to 0.48) 0.16 0.021
Sex (female) 0.59 (−5.67 to 6.84) 0.13 0.853
Body mass index 0.87 (0.37 to 1.37) 0.24 < 0.001
Pain catastrophisation (present) 20.07 (12.87 to 27.27) 0.41 < 0.001
Depressive symptoms (present) 8.97 (0.81 to 17.13) 0.21 0.031
CSS (present) 1.33 (−6.68 to 9.34) 0.03 0.743
  1. Dichotomously coded variables include sex (males = 0, females = 1), pain catastrophising (1 = catastrophisation, 0 = non-catastrophisation), depressive symptoms (1 = present, 0 = absent), and CSS (1 = present, 0 = absent)
  2. Abbreviations: CI confidence interval, CSS central sensitisation syndrome, MOXFQ Manchester-Oxford Foot and Ankle Questionnaire