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Table 3 Linear regression analyses of factors associated with FFI total score at 26 weeks follow-up

From: Can we predict which patients with plantar heel pain are more likely to benefit from insoles? A secondary exploratory analysis of a randomized controlled trial

  Patients treated with insoles (custom + sham)  
  Univariate Multivariable model
Variables Unstandardized β (95% CI) Unstandardized β (95% CI) Standardized Beta
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 1.25 (0.53, 1.98)* 0.69 (−0.05, 1.43) 0.16
Comorbidities (present) −3.43 (− 13.67, 6.81) −3.86 (− 13.87, 6.15) − 0.06
Sex (female) −0.38 (−9.05,8.29) −9.59 (− 17.87,-1.31)* 0.19
Age (years) 0.08 (− 0.32, 0,47) 0.27 (− 0.13, 0.67) 0.12
Bilateral pain (no) −13.05 (−22.62, − 3.47)* −8.41 (− 18.31, 1.50) 0.15
Neuropathic pain DN4 total score (0–10) 15.27 (6.75, 23.78)* − 0.21 (− 2.34, 1.92) − 0.02
Upper ankle joint dorsal range of motion (degrees) − 0.10 (− 0.37, 0.16) 0.02 (− 0.25, 0.28) 0.01
Metatarsal phalangeal joint dorsal range of motion (degrees) 0.06 (− 0.13, 0,24) 0.08 (− 0.08, 0.24) 0.08
Navicular drop (millimeter) −4.73 (− 14.74, 5.29) − 3.62 (− 13.12, 5.87) −0.07
Activity score (SQUASH) 0.0 (0.00, 0.00) 0.00 (0.00, 0.00) 0.10
Treatment group (custom insole) 0.36 (−7.64, 8.35) 0.59 (− 7.11, 8.30) 0.01
Baseline FFI total score (0–100) 0.63 (0.43, 0.84)* 0.56 (0.30, 0.82)* 0.43
Baseline first step pain (0–10) 2.04 (0.30, 3.78)* −0.01 (− 1.89, 1.70) − 0.01
Duration of symptoms (months) 0.25 (− 0.09, 0.59) 0.05 (− 0.30, 0.40) 0.02
Foot posture index (supination) 0.05 (−13.45, 13.55) −1.14 (− 13.68, 11.39) − 0.02
Foot posture index (pronation) 5.07 (− 3.79, 13.93) 1.32 (−7.35, 10.00) 0.03
  1. *p-value < 0.05
  2. In the patients treated with usual care only variables that gave a significant result in the patients treated with insoles were analyzed