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Table 4 Summary of findings for individual sonoelastography studies

From: Medical imaging for plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Sample size Findings
Gatz et al., 2020 [28] PHP = 39, Control = 20 PHP participants had significantly lower Young’s modulus values at the fascia insertion (mean 46.3 kPa, SD 5.5) compared to control participants (mean 87.6 kPa, SD 22.6).
Lee et al., 2014 [50] PHP = 18, Control = 18 16 (89%) PHP participants had the presence of plantar fascia softening compared to only 9 (59%) of the control participants.
Rios-Diaz et al., 2015 [37] PHP = 21, Control = 23 72.6% of fascias were of intermediate stiffness with no association with PHP.
Schillizzi et al., 2020 [24] PHP = 19, Control = 20 PHP participants had significantly lower shear wave velocity expressed in meters/second (SWV m/s) (median 3.8 m/s, IQR 1.5 to 5.1) compared to control participants (median 5.1 m/s, IQR 3.0 to 6.9).
Sconfienza et al., 2013 [38] PHP = 80, Control = 50 PHP participants’ fascia were less elastic than control participants’ fascia (median elasticity values 11 and 7, respectively, where a higher score indicates less elasticity).
Wu et al., 2011 [44] PHP = 13, Control = 40 PHP participants had significantly less red (hard) pixel intensity (measured on a scale from 0 to 255) in the fascia compared to older control participants (mean 133.7, SD 13.4 compared with mean 147.8, SD 10.3, respectively).
Wu et al., 2015 [51] PHP = 30, Control = 30 Participants with unilateral PHP had significantly less red (more elastic) pixel intensity (range 0–255) compared to control participants (mean 127.1, SD 7.4 to mean 146.9, SD 9.1, respectively).
  1. Notes: kPa: Kilopascal, SWV m/s: Shear wave velocity expressed in meters/second, IQR: Interquartile range, SD: Standard deviation