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Table 1 Study and participant characteristics

From: Medical imaging for plantar heel pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study ID Imaging modality Sample size Blinding Uni or bilateral Sample type Female % Mean age (years) Mean BMI (kg/m2)
PHP Control PHP Control PHP Control PHP Control
Aggarwal 2020 Ultrasound 44 50 NR Bilateral NR 95.5 50.0 36.0 38.2 28.8 25.7
Akfirat 2003 Ultrasound/Radiograph 25 15 NR Bilateral NR 92.0 73.3 47.5 46.5 27.2, 28.4 1 28.0
Berkowitz 1991 MRI 8 10 NR Bilateral NR 87.5 50.0 43.0 41.0 NR NR
Bygrave 1998 Ultrasound 14 11 NR Bilateral NR 50.0 63.6 NR NR 28.9 24.6
Cardinal 1996 Ultrasound 15 15 Unblinded Bilateral NR 60.0 NR 43.0 NR NR NR
Cetin 2001 Scintigraphy/Radiograph 22 17 NR Unilateral NR 77.3 52.9 47.4 53.3 29.2 28.7
Chen 2013 Ultrasound 38 21 NR Unilateral Community 63.2 42.9 45.2 45.1 25.4 23.3
Cheng 2012 Ultrasound 11 26 Blinded Bilateral NR 45.5 53.8 NR NR NR NR
Cheung 2016 MRI 10 10 NR Unilateral Athletic 50.0 50.0 32.6 34.5 NR NR
Fabrikant 2011 Ultrasound 30 33 2 NR Bilateral Community 53.3 54.5 57.1 58.6 32.1 28.3
Fernandez-Lao 2016 Ultrasound 22 22 NR Unilateral NR 50.0 50.0 47.9 47.2 NR NR
Finkenstaedt 2018 MRI 22 15 Blinded Unilateral NR 68.2 80.0 54.0 47.0 28.8 23.7
Gatz 2020 Ultrasound/Sonoelastography 31 10 Blinded Bilateral Community 74.2 50.0 48.9 30.4 26.7 22.8
Genc 2005 Ultrasound 30 30 2 Unblinded Bilateral NR 90.0 90.0 43.1 42.9 28.1 28.3
Gibbon 1999 Ultrasound 190 48 Unblinded Bilateral Community 43.2 58.3 53.0 48.0 NR NR
Granado 2018 Ultrasound 20 20 3 Unblinded Unilateral NR 65.0 13.0 47.0 43.0 28.3 25.3
Hogan 2020 Ultrasound 16 16 Unblinded Unilateral Community 81.3 81.3 26.1 25.0 NR NR
Kamel 2000 Ultrasound 20 20 NR Bilateral NR 55.0 55.0 NR NR NR NR
Karabay 2007 Ultrasound 23 23 NR Bilateral NR 65.2 47.8 NR NR NR NR
Lee 2014 Sonoelastography 13 15 Unblinded Bilateral NR NR NR 45 46.0 NR NR
Lin 2015 Sonoelastography 16 20 NR Unilateral Community 56.3 50.0 51.8 25.5 24.6 23.6
McMillan 2013 Ultrasound 30 30 Unblinded Unilateral Community 50.0 50.0 57.0 57.0 31.0 29.0
Osborne 2006 Radiograph 21 78 Blinded Bilateral NR NR NR 51.8 43.4 NR NR
Ozdemir 2005 Ultrasound 39 22 Blinded Bilateral Community 74.4 63.6 45.0 36.0 28.0 25.0
Prichasuk 1994 Radiograph 82 400 Unblinded Bilateral Community 90.2 50.0 46.1 NR NR NR
Rios-Diaz 2015 Sonoelastography 21 23 Blinded Unilateral NR 14.3 47.8 38.0 23.7 26.5 23.3
Rome 2002 Ultrasound 33 64 4 Blinded Unilateral Mixed NR NR 24.6 23.9 23.1 22.3
Sabir 2005 Ultrasound/MRI 77 77 Blinded Bilateral NR 85.7 81.8 45.9 42.0 34.2 25.2
Sahin 2010 Radiograph 42 40 Unblinded Bilateral Community 76.2 75.0 48.0 47.2 NR NR
Schillizzi 2020 Ultrasound/Sonoelastography 17 20 Unblinded Bilateral NR NR NR 50.5 47.5 25.0 24.0
Sconfienza 2013 Ultrasound/Sonoelastography 80 50 Blinded Unilateral Community 46.3 46.0 46.3 44.3 NR NR
Song 2019 MRI 18 19 NR Bilateral NR 61.1 47.3 45.6 40.8 NR NR
Sutera 2010 MRI 20 20 Blinded Unilateral NR 20.0 30.0 36.0 33.0 NR NR
Tsai 2000 Ultrasound 102 33 Blinded Bilateral NR 69.6 51.5 45.0 41.1 24.5, 25.3 1 23.3
Turgut 1999 Radiograph 73 120 Blinded Bilateral Community 69.9 NR 47.0 NR NR NR
Wall 1993 Ultrasound 19 20 Blinded Unilateral NR 47.4 50.0 49.2 45.5 NR NR
Walther 2004 Ultrasound 20 20 NR Unilateral NR 80.0 60.0 45.0 42.0 NR NR
Wearing 2007 Ultrasound 10 10 Unblinded Unilateral NR 70.0 70.0 48.0 47.0 NR NR
Wearing 2010 Ultrasound 9 9 Blinded Unilateral Community 66.7 66.7 48.0 46.0 29.0 28.9
Williams 1987 Scintigraphy 5 45 NR Blinded Bilateral Community 44.4 NR 57.5 NR NR NR
Wu 2011 Ultrasound/Sonoelastography 13 20 6 Unblinded Bilateral Community 53.8 50.0 49.5 55.4 23.5 23.1
Wu 2015 Sonoelastography 20 30 Blinded Bilateral Community 60.0 63.3 45.1 41.6 22.5, 21.5 1 22.2
  1. Notes: 1 Study reported unilateral and bilateral data, respectively; 2 Left-sided PHP and control group data extracted for meta-analysis; 3 Right-sided PHP and control group data extracted for meta-analysis; 4 Matched control group data; 5 Radiograph data from this study were excluded (see Additional file 2); 6 Data reported for older age group of two control groups; NR = Not reported