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Table 3 Risk of bias judgments by ROBINS-I domains

From: Evidence for foot orthoses for adults with flatfoot: a systematic review

  ROBINS-I domains
Author Year Bias due to confounding Bias in selection of participants Bias in classification of intervention Bias due to deviations from intended interventions Bias due to missing data Bias in measurement of outcomes Bias in the selection of reported results Overall
Acak et al. 2020 NI NI Low risk NI Low risk Low risk NI NI
Aminian et al. 2013 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Chen et al. 2010 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Han et al. 2019 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Jiang et al. 2021 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Kido et al. 2014 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Miller et al. 1996 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Murley et al. 2010 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Park et al. 2017 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Peng et al. 2020 NI NI Low risk NI NI Low risk NI NI
Tang et al. 2015 NI NI Low risk NI Low risk Low risk NI NI
  1. NI: no information