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Table 3 Lower leg muscle function for 20 MTSS symptomatic and 20 control limbs

From: Lower leg muscle structure and function are altered in long-distance runners with medial tibial stress syndrome: a case control study

Variables MTSS symptomatic limbs 95 % CI Control limbs 95 % CI Mean difference Cohen’s d p-value
FDL (% BW) 15.8 (5) 12.8–18.7 18.6 (6.8) 15.6–21.6 2.8 0.47 0.111
FHL (% BW) 20.3 (5.8) 16.1–24.4 27 (11.2) 22.8–31.1 6.7 0.75 0.023*
Gastrocnemius (% BW) 75 (10.0) 68.1–85.0 79.6 (14.1) 72.7–89.6 4.6 0.38 0.085
P (% BW) 27.9 (6.3) 24.5–31.4 33.5 (7.5) 30.1–36.9 5.6 0.81 0.010*
SOL (% BW) 63.7 (13.5) 55.3–71.2 72.7 (15.9) 65.3–80.5 9 0.61 0.035*
TA (% BW) 33.5 (7.8) 28.0-38.8 42 (12.3) 36.5–47.3 8.5 0.83 0.005*
Ankle plantar flexor endurance (heel raise repetitions) 33.2 (12.7) 5.1–66.2 75.4 (73.8) 47.3-108.4 42.2 0.80 0.005*
  1. Values are mean (± SD), *p < 0.05
  2. CI confidence interval, FDL flexor digitorum longus, FHL flexor hallucis longus, GL gastrocnemius lateral head, GM gastrocnemius medial head, peroneals, SOL  soleus, TA tibialis anterior, Mean difference = Control – MTSS symptomatic limbs
  3. *significant difference