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Table 2 Lower leg muscle structure for 20 MTSS symptomatic and 20 control limbs

From: Lower leg muscle structure and function are altered in long-distance runners with medial tibial stress syndrome: a case control study

Variables MTSS symptomatic limbs 95 % CI Control limbs 95 % CI Mean difference Cohen’s d p-value
FDL thickness (mm) 15.9 (2.8) 14.7–17.0 15.9 (2.2) 14.8–17.1 0 0 0.951
FDL CSA (mm2) 243.3 (88.9) 200.4-286.5 277 (96.1) 234.1-320.1 33.7 0.36 0.252
FHL thickness (mm) 18.9 (2.5) 17.3–20.7 20.6 (4.0) 18.7–22.3 1.7 0.51 0.056
FHL CSA (mm2) 481.9 (122.3) 404.9-550.1 538.6 (126.0) 461.4-605.8 56.7 0.46 0.042*
GL thickness (mm) 15.8 (2.1) 14.9–16.7 13.9 (1.9) 13.0-14.8 -1.9 -0.95 0.007*
GM thickness (mm) 20.3 (3.6) 18.9–21.7 18.9 (2.1) 17.5–20.3 -1.4 -0.47 0.114
P thickness (mm) 15.6 (2.4) 14.6–16.7 14.9 (2.0) 13.8–15.9 -0.7 -0.32 0.288
P CSA (mm2) 377.1 (77.4) 337.4-410.6 354.2 (57.7) 317.0-387.2 -22.9 -0.34 0.273
SOL thickness (mm) 16.5 (2.7) 15.0–18.0 18.4 (3.1) 16.9–19.9 1.9 0.65 0.016*
TA thickness (mm) 25.1 (2.6) 23.3–26.9 24.2 (3.7) 22.4–26.0 -0.9 -0.28 0.289
TA CSA (mm2) 672.8 (160.7) 591.6-763.2 686.9 (108.4) 605.1-779.2 14.1 0.10 0.671
Lean lower leg girth (normalised to lower leg length) 0.94 (0.73) 0.91–0.98 0.95 (0.83) 0.91–0.99 0.01 0.01 0.813
  1. Values are mean (± SD), *p < 0.05
  2. CI confidence interval, FDL flexor digitorum longus, FHL flexor hallucis longus, GL gastrocnemius lateral head, GM gastrocnemius medial head, peroneals, SOL soleus, TA tibialis anterior, Mean difference = Control – MTSS symptomatic limbs
  3. *significant difference