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Table 4 – Qualitative synthesis of results and overview of evidence

From: Non-pharmacological interventions and corticosteroid injections for the management of the Achilles tendon in inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review

  DOMAIN
Pain Ultrasound Identified Abnormalities and Vascularity
B Mode Ultrasound Doppler Ultrasound
Visual Analogue Scale
(units not specified)
Entheseal Thickness
(mm)
Bursitis
(n)
Bone Erosion
(n)
Enthesophyte
(n)
Entheseal Hypoecho-genicity
(n)
Peri-tendinous Oedema
(n)
Entheseal Vascularity
(Grade)
Bursal Vascularity
(Grade)
Huang et al. [26] Baseline:
5.3 ± 0.7
Week 2:
0.8 ± 1.0
Week 4:
0.5 ± 0.6
Week 8:
1.1 ± 1.1
Week 12:
1.5 ± 0.8
p < 0.05
(mean ± SD)
Baseline:
7.6 ± 3.1
Week 2:
6.3 ± 2.4
Week 4:
6.2 ± 2.1
Week 8:
6.2 ± 1.9
Week 12:
6.2 ± 1.9
p > 0.05
(mean ± SD)
Baseline:
7 detected
Week 2:
4 detected
Week 4:
3 detected
Week 8:
3 detected
Week 12:
3 detected
p > 0.05
Baseline:
4 detected
Week 2:
4 detected
Week 4:
4 detected
Week 8:
4 detected
Week 12:
4 detected
p > 0.05
Baseline:
1 detected
Week 2:
1 detected
Week 4:
1 detected
Week 8:
1 detected
Week 12:
1 detected
p > 0.05
N/A N/A Baseline:
Grade 1: 0
Grade 2: 2
Grade 3: 3
Grade 4: 2
Week 2:
Grade 1: 2
Grade 2: 4
Grade 3: 1
Grade 4: 0
Week 4:
Grade 1: 4
Grade 2: 3
Grade 3: 0
Grade 4: 0
Week 8:
Grade 1: 3
Grade 2: 3
Grade 3: 1
Grade 4: 0
Week 12:
Grade 1: 2
Grade 2: 4
Grade 3: 2
Grade 4: 0
N/A
Srivastava & Aggarwal [27] Baseline:
7 (4–10)
Week 6:
3 (0–7)
p < 0.0001
(mean [range])
Baseline:
6.9 (5.6–9.8)
Week 6:
6.1 (4–9.8)
p < 0.0001
(mean [range])
Baseline:
26 detected
Week 6:
15 detected
p < 0.001
Baseline:
24 detected
Week 6:
24 detected
p > 0.05
Baseline:
3 detected
Week 6:
3 detected
p > 0.05
Baseline:
27 detected
Week 6:
19 detected
p = 0.02
Baseline:
17 detected
Week 6:
5 detected
p > 0.05
Baseline:
2 (0–3)
Week 6:
0 (0–3)
p < 0.0001
(mean [grade range])
Baseline:
2 (0–3)
Week 6:
0 (0–3)
p < 0.0001
(mean [grade range])
Level of Evidence Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections reducing pain as 2 studies report consistent findings Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections decreasing entheseal thickness as 2 studies report consistent findings Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections decreasing the presence of bursitis as 2 studies report consistent findings Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections not improving the number of bone erosions as 2 studies report consistent findings Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections not improving the number of enthesophytes as 2 studies report consistent findings Inconclusive due to lack of studies Inconclusive due to lack of studies Weak evidence for corticosteroid injections reducing entheseal vascularity in Achilles enthesis as 2 studies report consistent findings Inconclusive due to lack of studies