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Table 2 – Description of Included Studies

From: Non-pharmacological interventions and corticosteroid injections for the management of the Achilles tendon in inflammatory arthritis: a systematic review

Author, year Study Type Participant Description No. Entered / Completed study Follow up period Intervention Outcome measures
Huang et al. [26] OBS AS patients with unilateral refractory AT enthesitis
• M:F 6:1
• Disease Duration: 6.1 ± 5.7 years)
12 entered/ 12 completed (12 AT).
7 treated with corticosteroid
2,4,8 and 12 weeks 7 patients injected with 1 ml betamethasone o Pain
o Entheseal thickness
(US derived)
o Bone erosion
o Bursitis
o Enthesophyte
Srivastava & Aggarwal [27] OBS SpA patients with symptomatic AT enthesitis
• M:F 8:1
• Subtypes:
AS–10
JSpA–5
PsA–1
IBDA–1
USpA-1
29 patients (40 AT) entered/
18 patients (27 AT) completed
6 weeks 20 mg methylprednisolone injected o Pain
o Entheseal thickness
o Bone erosion
o Bursitis
o Enthesophyte
o Entheseal hypoechogenecity (Doppler US)
o Peritendinous oedema
  1. OBS Observational study, AT Achilles tendon, US Ultrasound, M:F Male:Female ratio,
  2. AS Ankylosing spondylitis, SpA Spondyloarthropathies, JSpA Juvenile Spondyloarthropathy, PsA Psoriatic Arthritis,
  3. IBDA Inflammatory Bowel Disease-associated Arthritis, USpA Undifferentiated Spondyloarthropathy.