Skip to main content

Table 2 Summary of the included studies

From: The epidemiology of chronic ankle instability with perceived ankle instability- a systematic review

Authors Country Study type Mode of data collection Study population Defining CAI Exclusion criteria Prevalence of CAI, n(%) Prevalence of CAI within participants with history of ankle sprains, n(%) Participants with history of ankle sprain, n(%)
Schmitt et al. [18] France Descriptive longitudinal study Questionnaires French soldiers aged 32.2 (N = 1238) with a history of ankle sprain (n = 65) Based on IAC using IdFAI IAC 28 (2) 28/65 (43) 65 (5)
Donovan et al. [19] USA Cross-sectional study Questionnaires Athletes 8 from sports clubs and high Athletes in high schools in Wisconsin (N = 1002)
 Female (n = 505): 15.7 ± 1.7 years
 Male (n = 497): 15.6 ± 1.9 years
A history of ankle sprain and perceived ankle instability (evaluated using IdFAI) Without history of injury 200 (20) 200/262 (76) 262 (26)
Koshino et al. [20] Japan Cross-sectional study Questionnaires Japanese Collegiate athletes with LAS (N = 470)
CAI (n = 47): 20.0 ± 1.2 years, 1.70 ± 0.7 m, 65.5 ± 11.5 kg
Coper (n = 20): 20.5 ± 1.4 years, 1.68 ± 0.06 m, 63.8 ± 10.3 kg
Based on IAC using CAIT Research criteria: IAC
Clinical criteria: IAC without exclusion criteria
47 (10)
93 (20)
47/212 (22)
93/212 (44)
212 (45)
Holland et al. [21] USA Cross-sectional study Questionnaires Students in western North Carolina(N = 201)
 Uninjured (n = 86): 16.0 years, 1.69 m, 62.0 kg
 Coper (n = 16): 15.38 years, 1.66 m, 65.2 kg
 Potentially unstable (n = 40): 15.6 years, 1.65 m, 60.9 kg
 Unstable (n = 59): 15.68 years, 1.68 m, 62.5 kg
Based on IAC using IdFAI Missing data 59 (29) 59/115 (51) 115 (57)
Doherty et al. [22] Ireland Cohort study Questionnaires Physical active individuals with LAS (N = 70)
 CAI (n = 28): 23.2 years, 75.5 kg, 1.72 m
 LAS coper (n = 42): 22.7 years, 73.4 kg, 1.73 m
Based on IAC using CAIT IAC NA 28/70 (40) NA
Attenborough et al. [23] Australia Cross-sectional study Questionnaires Ankle joint laxity Female netball players in Sydney(N = 96)
 Club (n = 42): 24.1 ± 7.9 years, 1.67 ± 0.05 m, 68.5 ± 15.9 kg
 Inter-district (n = 54): 19.4 ± 3.5 years, 1.73 ± 0.06 m, 72.0 ± 12.7 kg
Previous ankle sprain +
Recurrent ankle sprain, perceived ankle instability (CAIT), mechanical ankle instability
A lower limb injury in the 6 months prior to testing a history of ankle surgery or ankle fracture all previous ankle sprains occurred a minimum of 6 months prior 44 (46) 44/69 (64) 69 (72)
Simon et al. [24] USA Exploratory study Questionnaires Dancer (N = 77)
19.61 ± 2.53 years, dance experience: 13.61 ± 3.16 years
perceived ankle instability (IdFAI) A history of fracture or surgery in the lower extremities. 41 (53) 41/54 (76) 54 (70)
Tanen et al. [25] USA Descriptive epidemiological survey Questionnaires Athletes (N = 512)
Collegiate athletes (n = 316) 19.6 ± 1.2 years
high school athletes (n = 196) 15.9 ± 1.2 years
Perceived ankle instability (CAIT and AII) A history of an ankle fracture, ankle surgery, neurological disorder such as, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, or multiple sclerosis, or failed to completely answer the questionnaires. 120 (23) 120/391 (31) 391 (76)
Kobayashi et al. [26] Japan Cross-sectional study Questionnaires Female athletes (N = 138)
Aged 18–23
21.8 ± 0.4 years, 1.66 m, 57.0 kg
Based on IAC using CAIT IAC 10 (7) 10/106 (9) 106 (77)
  1. IAC The International Ankle Consortium, CAIT The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool, AII The ankle Instability Instrument, IdFAI The Identification of functional Ankle Instability, NA not applicable