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Table 4 Main findings

From: Plantar soft tissues and Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness in people with diabetes: a systematic review

Findings Plantar tissue thickness Plantar tissue stiffness Achilles tendon thickness Achilles tendon stiffness
People with diabetes compared to healthy controls
 Total no. of studies 20 19 9 5
 ↑ 5% (1/20) 47% (9/19) 45% (4/9) 0
 ↓ 10% (2/20) 0 0 20% (1/5)
 NS 55% (11/20) 21% (4/19) 33% (3/9) 60% (3/5)
 Other 30% (6/20) 32% (6/19) 22% (2/9) 20% (1/5)
People with diabetes-related peripheral neuropathy compared to healthy controls
 Total no. of studies 7 9 6 3
 ↑ 0 78% (7/9) 83% (5/6) 0
 ↓ 29% (2/7) 0 0 67% (2/3)
 NS 57% (4/7) 22% (2/9) 17% (1/6) 33% (1/3)
 Other 14% (1/7) 0 0 0
People with an active or a history of diabetes-related foot ulcerations compared to healthy controls
 Total no. of studies 8 6 3 1
 ↑ 13% (1/8) 17% (1/6) 100% (3/3) 0
 ↓ 0 0 0 0
 NS 50% (4/8) 17% (1/6) 0 0
 Other 37% (3/8) 66% (4/6) 0 100% (1/1)
  1. Symbols: ↑ Significantly increased; ↓ Significantly decreased
  2. Abbreviations: NS no significant differences