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Table 3 Plantar tissue stiffness outcome metrics

From: Plantar soft tissues and Achilles tendon thickness and stiffness in people with diabetes: a systematic review

No. Outcome metrics Author
1 Compressibility index Hsu (2000) [53]
2 Elasticity (Ur/Uf) (%) Lechner (2019) [36]
3 Total deformation (Uf) (mm) Lechner (2019) [36]
4 Elastic modulus Hsu (2009) [46]; Hsu (2000) [53]
5 Effective Young’s modulus (kPa) Cheing (2013) [41]; Jan (2013) [42]; Chao (2011) [45]; Zheng (2000) [58]
6 Young’s modulus (kPa) Sun (2011) [55]
7 Initial modulus (kPa) Jan (2013) [42]
8 Non-linear modulus (kPa) Jan (2013) [42]
9 Initial shear modulus (MPa) Kwak (2020) [34]
10 Shear modulus (kPa) Cheung (2006) [62]
11 Strain-hardening exponent Kwak (2020) [34]
12 Ratio of the final displacement reading at 120s to the maximum displacement at 60s (where there is an application of stress for the first 60s, followed by 60s without) Hashmi (2006) [50]
13 Change in force divided by the change in displacement, which was then transformed using a parallel three-element viscoelastic model developed by the authors Mueller (2003) [56]
14 Change in force divided by the change in displacement, which was then transformed using a parallel three-element viscoelastic model developed by the authors; where, K1 = entire range of indentation; K2 = second portion of the indentation curve. Klaesner (2002) [63]
15 Slope of the final part of the force/deformation curve Chatzistergos (2014) [40]
16 Shore degrees (°) Periyasamy (2012) [44]; Puri (2005) [51]; Thomas (2003) [52];
17 Shore indices Periyasamy (2012) [44]
18 Shore A values Brink (1995) [59]