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Table 2 Values for all measures are reported with validity, reliability and feasibility outcomes

From: Online questionnaire, clinical and biomechanical measurements for outcome prediction of plantar heel pain: feasibility for a cohort study

MEASUREMENTS DOMAIN PURPOSE RESULTS OUTCOMES
Patient Reported Outcome Measures (n = 36)
 Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) Psychosocial factors V
R
F
LoA = 0.2 ± 8.5; d = 0.01; p = 0.83
Excellent (ICC = 0.97)
Patients reported psychosocial questions duplication
Online use valid Reliable measure
Redesign order
 Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) Activity level V
R
F
LoA = −5.3 ± 22.2 d = − 0.22; p = 0.51
Good (ICC = 0.81)
Designed logic between relevant question to avoid time wasting and make GPAQ appropriate for online use
Online use valid
Reliable measure
Time burden Reduction needed
 Fear-Avoidance Belief Questionnaire subscale (FABQ) Psychosocial factors V
R
V
R
F
PA: LoA = 1.6 ± 15.9; d = −0.06; p = 0.55
PA Excellent (ICC = 0.92)
W: LoA = − 0.5 ± 8.5; d = 0.25; p = 0.77
W: Poor (ICC = 0.39)
Patients reported psychosocial questions duplication
Online use valid
Reliable measure
Online use valid
Poor reliability
Redesign order
 Health-related Quality of Life (EQ. 5D-5L) Quality of Life V
R
V
R
F
VAS: LoA = − 0.3 ± 13.6; d = − 0.26; p = 0.07
VAS: Excellent (ICC = 0.94)
State: LoA = − 1.1 ± 8.5; 0.16; p = 0.55
State: Moderate (ICC = 0.64)
Easy to report & understandable
Online use valid
Reliable measure
Online use valid
Moderate reliability
Easy to use
 Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) Physical factors V
R
F
F
LoA = 1.3 ± 10–2.5 ± 18.2; d = 0.11–0.16 p = 0.49–.08
Excellent to moderate (ICC = 0.99–0.73)
Patient answers inconsistent for last subscale.
Patients reported many questions in physical factors
Online use valid
Reliable measure
Redesign look
Reduce repetition
 Key miscellaneous questions Morning pain duration (mins)
Morning pain severity (VAS)
V
R
V
R
F
LoA = 2.2 ± 18.7; d = 0.10; p: 0.34
Excellent (ICC = 0.94)
LoA = − 2.1 ± 19.0; d = − 0.10; p: 0.33
Excellent (ICC = 0.94)
Both measures easy to report & understandable
Overall: Online use valid, reliable measures that are feasible.
 Pain map Foot pain map V
R
F
Pain-spreading region with 66% agreement.
%98 matched; the medial aspect of RF
clumsy system
Valid Use
Reliable measure
Navigate Pain
Clinic Examination (N = 18)
 Foot mobility Navicular drift
Navicular drops
MLA angle
V
F
V
F
V
F
PHP = 6 ± 3; OP = 8 ± 1; H = 7 ± 3 mm;
difficult to control medial movement
PHP = 10 ± 4; OP = 9 ± 4; H = 12 ± 9 mm;
Difficult to determine the change
PHP = 160° ± 7; OP = 156° ± 11; H = 155° ± 5
difficult to position and maintain set-up
Overall: a new measurement procedure is required.
 Range of motion Hip IR
Ankle active DF
1MTPJ DF
V 
F
V
F
V
F
PHP = †43° ± 4; OP = 45° ± 9; H = 57° ± 12
Difficult to estimate centre of rotation
PHP = 27° ± 6; OP = 25° ± 3; H = 27° ± 3
Difficult to estimate true vertical and horizontal positions
PHP = 36° ± 4; OP = 38° ± 10; H = 37° ± 7
The test was affected by instrumentation,
Overall: valid measure but
binary outcomes needed and amended procedure.
 Strength (oxford scale) H. ER
Ankle PF
Inversion
Intrinsic muscle
V
F
V
F
V
F
V
F
PHP = 4.7 ± 4; OP = 4.8 ± 4; H = 5
Difficulty to detect difference between grades
PHP = 4.9 ± 2; OP = 4.9 ± 2; H = 5
assesses muscles when contracting concentrically
PHP = †3.5 ± 5; OP = 5; H = 5
No difficulty is detected
PHP = 4,8 ± 4; OP = 5; H = 4.8 ± 6
Difficulty to control participation of other muscle groups
Overall: valid measure but binary outcome needed and more practical test.
 Modified knee to wall ADROM before NP DFROM in full V
V
F
PHP = 20° ± 8; OP = 21° ± 9; H = 21° ± 7
PHP = †14° ± 6; OP = 18° ± 8; H = 28° ± 10
Navicular drop not clear
Overall: sensible values but test needs modified
Ultrasound Assessment (N = 18)
 Thickness measures PF origin
Mid PF
Heel pad
V
V
V
F
PHP = †3.7 ± 0.4; OP = 2.6 ± 0.8; H = 2.9 ± 0.4 mm.
PHP = †3.7 ± 0.4; OP = 2.6 ± 0.7; H = 2.8 ± 0.4 mm.
PHP = 8.4 ± 0.2; OP = 7.8 ± 0.2; H = 9.3 ± 1.9 mm.
Difficult to control pressure
Overall: sensible values but practice needed.
Biomechanical Assessment (N = 9)
 Graded loading challenge (GLC) First vGRF peak
(N/BW)
V
R
F
NW = 7626 ± 1565; LS = 8866 ± 1822; NWW = 9445 ± 1564; LSW = 10,825 ± 1320
Excellent (ICC = 0.92–0.95)
Easy to measure & high-quality data
Overall: valid and reliable measure which is feasible to collect.
Second vGRF Peak (N/BW) V
R
F
NW = 7826 ± 1656; LS = 8598 ± 1859; WW = 9569 ± 1541; LSW = 10,919 ± 1805
Good to excellent (ICC = 0.81–0.92)
Easy to measure & high-quality data
Overall: valid and reliable measure which is feasible to collect.
Rate of force development
(N. s− 1)
V
R
F
NW = 4741 ± 1307; LS = 5949 ± 1671; WW =5235 ± 1518;
LSW =7356 ± 1799
Excellent (ICC = 0.91–0.96)
Easy to measure & high-quality data
Overall: valid and reliable measure which is feasible to collect.
1.MTPJ DF on Toe off phase of gait cycle V
R
F
NW = 14° ± 6; LS = 15° ± 7; WW =15° ± 8; LSW =14° ± 6
Moderate (ICC = 0.60–0.71)
Time consuming
Sensible values Moderate reliability
Discard measure.
MLA during midstance V
R
F
NW = 139° ± 15; LS = 139° ± 15; WW = 140° ± 13; LSW = 143° ± 14
Poor to Good (ICC = 0.53–0.78)
Time consuming
Sensible values. Modest reliability
Discard measure.
  1. All measurements, their contents, purpose, relative results and outcomes are presented. Results of the clinical, biomechanical and miscellaneous questions are given in three groups to demonstrate differences as mean ± SD. Key: V Validity, R Reliability, F Feasibility, SD Standard deviation of mean values, n Number of participants, LoA Limits of Agreement (mean bias ±1.96*SD); ICC Intra-Class Correlation Coefficients, d Cohen’s d, BMI Body Mass Index, N Newton, BW Body Weight, min minutes, VAS visual analogue scale, ROM Range of motion, H.ER Hip external rotation ROM, DFROM Dorsiflexion Range of Motion, A Ankle, ND Navicular Drop, 1MTPJ First metatarsophalangeal joint, PF Plantar Fascia, MLA Medial Longitudinal arch angle, NW Normal Walking, LS Long-Step walking, WW Walking with Weight, LSW Long-Step walking with Weight
  2. †p < .05 compared to control: p < .05 compared to other foot pain