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Table 1 Inclusion and exclusion criteria

From: Effectiveness of saline water and lidocaine injection treatment of intractable plantar keratoma: a randomised feasibility study

Inclusion criteria
• ≥ 18 years old
• Having a painful IPK for at least 3 months
Exclusion criteria
• Ongoing pregnancy or breastfeeding
• Severe cardiovascular or neurological disease
• Immunosuppressed status
• Presence of a plantar ulcer
• Allergy to lidocaine
• History of keloid or hypertrophic scar
• Simultaneous painful plantar syndrome unrelated to the presence of an IPK
  1. Group 1: Scalpel debridement only.
  2. Group 2: Scalpel debridement with needle insertion.
  3. Group 3: Scalpel debridement with subcutaneous injection of physiological saline water.
  4. Group 4: Scalpel debridement with subcutaneous injection of lidocaine solution 2%