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Table 6 Dynamic foot variables in participants with KOA (data reported as mean ± standard deviation)

From: Foot characteristics and mechanics in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, year of publish Foot variable (outcome) Instrument- Shod condition Results P-value
KOA Controls
Al-Zahrani and Bakheit 2002 [19] Ankle plantar flexion in stance (°)** 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 19.01 (15.90 to 22.70)** 30.88 (23.50 to 35.60)** < 0.12
Ankle plantar flexion in swing (°)** 27.76 (17.70 to 26.40)** 22.74 (15.90 to 22.70)** < 0.02*
Ankle moment (pre-swing) (Nm/kg)** 0.57 (0.36 to 0.78)** 0.79 (0.61 to 0.91)** < 0.002*
Ankle power (pre-swing) (Watt/k.)** 1.46 (0.53 to 2.31)** 3.86 (2.91 to 4.58)** < 0.000*
Anan et al., 2015 [20] Maximum ankle plantar flexion moment during STS (Nm/kg) 3D motion analysis system, force platform-
Barefoot
0.36 ± 0.07 0.34 ± 0.07 0.343
Mean ankle plantar flexion moment during STS (Nm/kg) 0.23 ± 0.06 0.24 ± 0.08 0.685
Ankle planter flexion moment impulse during STS (Nms/kg) 0.47 ± 0.16 0.38 ± 0.15 0.072
Arnold et al., 2014 [21] Hindfoot conronal plane ROM (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 10.9 ± 3.4 10.9 ± 4.3 0.562
Butler et al., 2009 [24] Rearfoot eversion excursion (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 10.1 ± 2.8 No controls NA
−0.030 ± 0.034   
Peak rearfoot eversion moment (Nm/kg*m)
Butler et al., 2011 [25] Peak rearfoot inversion moment (Nm/kg*m) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes −0.050 ± − 0.062 ± 0.38
Rearfoot eversion excursion (o) 0.045 0.03 0.96
10.6 ± 5.6 10.2 ± 3.7  
Charlton et al. 2018 [28] Foot rotation angle during natural walking: 3D motion analysis system- Barefoot    
Ipsilateral foot (°) −7.8 ± 7.9 No controls NA
Contralateral foot (°) −8.4 ± 5.7   
Gardner et al., 2007 [31] Planter flexion angle during cycling (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes −6.0 ± 8.5 − 8.9 ± 10.7 0.834
Ankle eversion during cycling (o) −6.8 ± 8.5 −13.2 ± 8.4 0.015*
Internal rotation angle (o) 8.1 ± 7.1 9.2 ± 7.6 0.849
Guo et al., 2007 [33] FPA during stair ascent (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 2.5 ± 6.6 No controls NA
FPA during stair descent (o) 11.3 ± 8.9   
Hinman et al., 2012 [34] COP offset (mm) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes −5.6 ± 4.3 No controls NA
Levinger et al.,2012a [39] Ankle dorsiflexion (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform-Barefoot 3.6 ± 3.3 2.4 ± 2.8 0.08
Ankle adduction (0) 2.8 ± 1.9 4.2 ± 2.1 0.01*
Toe clearance sensitivity in ankle (mm/degrees) −0.1 ± 3.5 1.1 ± 4.5 0.05*
Levinger et al., 2012b [40] Rearfoot frontal plane ROM (o) 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 10.2 ± 3.3 12.5 ± 3.1 NR
Rearfoot transverse plane ROM (o) 8.8 ± 4.7 10.0 ± 4.9 NR
Internal rotation (o) 11.7 ± 6.3 15.4 ± 7.9 NR
External rotation (o) 2.9 ± 5.8 5.4 ± 6.1 NR
Lidtke et al., 2010 [41] COP index Plantar pressure plate- Barefoot −5.87 ± 5.6 −0.45 ± 3.45 < 0.001*
Nigg et al., 2006 [42] Ankle plantar flexion (o) Biodex system- Wearing lab shoes 50.6 No controls NA
Ankle dorsiflexion (o) 22.2   
Park et al., 2016 [45] MVIC of ankle inversion muscle group (N/kg) Force dynamometer- Wearing lab shoes 0.62 ± 0.26 0.86 ± 0.31 0.007*
Reilly et al., 2006 [46] Ankle Plantar flexion in sitting (°) Objective manual testing (goniometer)- Barefoot 50.72 ± 11.49 52.13 ± 10.94 0.788
Ankle dorsiflexion in sitting (°) 10.07 ± 4.29 8.4 ± 3.71 0.000*
Calcaneal angle in sitting (°) 2.02 ± 2.04 −0.25 ± 2.93 0.000*
Saito et al., 2013 [50] Partial foot pressure per body weight (%) Plantar pressure sensor insoles during walking- Wearing lab shoes    
Heel 27.1 ± 11.2 41.7 ± 8.5 < 0.001*
Central 33.1 ± 11.2 16.5 ± 13.8 < 0.001*
Metatarsal 12.4 ± 7.9 12.1 ± 6.7 > 0.001
Hallux 1.5 ± 2.2 3.5 ± 3.0 < 0.001*
Lateral toes 1.2 ± 1.7 2.5 ± 2.1 > 0.001
Tan et al., 2020 [53] Peak dorsiflexion angle in stance (°) during walking 3D motion analysis system, force platform-Wearing lab shoes 14.9 ± 3.2 No controls NA
Peak dorsiflexion moment (Nm/kg) during walking   0.15 ± 0.27   
Peak dorsiflexion angle in stance (°) stair ascent / descent.   9.7 ± 4.4   
Peak dorsiflexion moment (Nm/kg) stair ascent / descent.   1.08 ± 0.22   
Weight bearing ankle joint dorsiflexion ROM (cm) Knee to wall test 9.1 ± 3.2   
Zhang et al., 2017 [56] Contact area (cm2) Plantar pressure sensor insoles during walking- Wearing lab shoes    
Heel 28.9 ± 2.9 28.6 ± 1.7 0.982
Midfoot 41.5 ± 5.8 36.5 ± 7.3 0.043*
1st MTPJ 13.8 ± 1.6 13.1 ± 1.3 0.875
2nd MTPJ 13.6 ± 0.8 13.2 ± 1.3 0.922
3rd-5th MTPJ 12.7 ± 0.6 12.8 ± 0.3 0.986
Hallux 7.1 ± 1.7 6.6 ± 1.6 0.684
Lesser toes 10.3 ± 1.1 10.8 ± 0.4 0.988
Maximum force (%BW)     
Heel 69.5 ± 15.2 67.1 ± 11.3 0.817
Midfoot 30.3 ± 7.1 23.6 ± 7.4 0.43
1st MTPJ 32.3 ± 7.1 26.5 ± 6.2 0.037*
2nd MTPJ 35.2 ± 9.1 30.3 ± 5.1 0.041*
3rd-5th MTPJ 17.7 ± 5.4 16.7 ± 4.9 0.843
Hallux 14.3 ± 6.5 13.5 ± 5.6 0.901
Lesser toes 12.0 ± 4.7 12.6 ± 3.2 0.973
Plantar pressure (kPa)     
Heel 252.9 ± 52.5 243.7 ± 52.5 0.581
Midfoot 132.8 ± 28.3 116.5 ± 30.0 0.031*
1st MTPJ 295.1 ± 100.4 224.3 ± 62.4 0.024*
2nd MTPJ 273.8 ± 103.9 244.6 ± 56.1 0.183
3rd-5th MTPJ 156.1 ± 43.1 157.9 ± 49.3 0.981
Hallux 231.9 ± 77.6 219.6 ± 79.4 0.531
Lesser toes 139.4 ± 49.4 142.9 ± 44.9 0.801
  1. *Statistically significant p-value at 95% confidence interval
  2. ** Data reported as median (interquartile range)
  3. Abbreviations: 3D three-dimensional, %BW percent bodyweight, AP anteroposterior, COP centre of pressure, KOA knee osteoarthritis, NA not applicable, NR not reported, MVIC maximum voluntary isometric contraction, MTPJ metatarsophalangeal joint, ROM range of motion, STS sit-to-stand