Skip to main content

Table 5 Static foot variables in participants with KOA (data reported as mean ± standard deviation)

From: Foot characteristics and mechanics in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Study, year of publish Foot variable (outcome) Instrument- Shod condition Results P-value
KOA Controls
Abourazzak et al., 2014 [18] Prevalence of pes cavus (%) Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot 58 77 0.004*
Elbaz et al., 2017 [29] Achilles tendon thickness (mm) Digital caliper- Barefoot 17.1 ± 3.4 15.1 ± 3.1 0.009
Guler et al., 2009 [32] Hallux valgus deformity (%) Objective manual testing, radiography (x-ray)- Barefoot 22.60 No controls NA
Hinman et al., 2016 [35] FPI (n, %) Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot    
Severely supinated 1 (1) No controls NA
Supinated 0 (0)   
Normal 44 (54)   
Pronated 30 (37)   
Severely pronated 6 (7)   
Levinger et al., 2010 [38] Vertical navicular height Objective manual testing, static footprint- Barefoot 0.23 ± 0.03 0.24 ± 0.03 0.542
Navicular drop 0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01 0.019*
Arch index 0.26 ± 0.04 0.22 ± 0.04 0.04*
Ohi et al., 2017 [43] Hallux valgus angle (°) 3D footprint automatic (laser) measurement- Barefoot 13.6 ± 7.22 No controls NA
Presence of hallux valgus (%)   12.5   
Navicular height (mm)   30.1 ± 6.75   
Calcaneus angle relative to floor (°)   1.35 ± 5.09   
Rear foot angle (°)   6.01 ± 3.76   
Reilly et al., 2006 [46] Navicular height in sitting (cm) Objective manual testing (goniometer)- Barefoot 5.22 ± 0.94 5.28 ± 0.89 0.005*
Navicular height in standing (cm)   4.69 ± 0.83 4.73 ± 0.98 0.003*
Reilly et al., 2009 [47] FPI** Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot 7.0 (−2 to 10)** 1.0 (−4 to 8)** < 0.001*
Ankle dorsiflexion during sitting (°)** Objective manual testing using goniometer -Barefoot 9.0 (0 to 32)** 7.5 (0 to 15)** < 0.001*
Shakoor et al., 2008 [51] VPT (volts) Biothesiometer, AP radiography- Barefoot    
First MTPJ 15 ± 9.9 6.4 ± 3.3 < 0.001*
Medial malleolus 22 ± 11.7 12.3 ± 5.2 0.001*
Lateral malleolus 22.3 ± 10.5 10.4 ± 3.2 < 0.001*
Tan et al., 2020 [53] FPI Visual observation (FPI)-
Midfoot and arch height mobility/arch indices- Barefoot
3 (1 to 7) No controls NA
Arch height difference (mm) 8.8 ± 5.2   
Midfoot width difference (mm) 8.9 ± 3.1   
Foot mobility magnitude (mm) 14.8 ± 7.9   
Van Tunen et al., 2018 [55] FPI (n, %) Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot
Foot mobility magnitude calculation
Navicular drop test
   
Normal (scores 0 to + 5) 9 (43) No controls NA
Pronated (scores + 6 to + 9) 11 (52)   
Highly pronated (scores greater + 9) 1 (5)   
Foot mobility magnitude (mm) 9.6 ± 3.8   
Navicular drop (mm) 7.6 ± 3.1   
  1. *Statistically significant p-value at 95% confidence interval
  2. ** Data reported as median (interquartile range)
  3. Abbreviations: 3D three-dimensional, FPI foot posture index, KOA knee osteoarthritis, MTPJ metatarsophalangeal joint, NA not applicable, NR not reported, SAI Staheli arch index, VPT Vibratory perception threshold