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Table 4 Common foot variables in participants with KOA (data reported as mean ± standard deviation)

From: Foot characteristics and mechanics in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Foot variables Study, year Instrument- Shod condition Results P-value
KOA Controls
Foot Progression Angle or toe-out degree (0) Bechard et al., 2012 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 6.2 ± 6.1 9.4 ± 5.0 0.68
Booij et al., 2020 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot −40.12 ± 4.80 No controls NA
Chang et al., 2007 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 18.1 ± 8.4 No controls NA
Guo et al., 2007 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 2.0 ± 6.8 No controls NA
Hinman et al., 2012 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes −6.06 ± 5.56 No controls NA
Khan et al., 2019 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 9.6 ± 3.7 No controls NA
Krackow et al., 2011 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 8.58 ± 2.37 15.36 ± 2.12 NR
Paquette et al., 2015 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 13 ± 4 12.2 ± 3.5 0.82
Rutherford et al., 2008 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 7.5 ± 5 7.3 ± 5 NA
Rutherford et al., 2010 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 6.6 ± 7.3 4.9 ± 4.7 0.625
Simic et al., 2013 3D motion analysis system- Wearing lab shoes −4.5 ± 1.5 No controls NA
Trombini-Souza et al., 2011 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 12.2 ± 6.74 13.1 ± 7.90 0.71
Peak rearfoot eversion (0) Arnold et al., 2014 3D motion analysis system, force platform – Barefoot 5.3 ± 4.2 4.5 ± 5.0 0.850
Butler et al., 2009 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 3.5 ± 4.3 No controls NA
Butler et al., 2011 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 6.2 ± 5.0 3.5 ± 2.7 0.01*
Chapman et al., 2015 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 3.51 ± 2.77 No controls NA
Erhart-Hledik et al., 2017 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Wearing lab shoes 13.9 ± 5.4 No controls NA
Levinger et al., 2012 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 1.3 ± 5.2 2.3 ± 3.9 NR
Nigg et al., 2006 Biodex system- Wearing lab shoes 41.9 No controls NA
Peak rearfoot inversion (0) Arnold et al., 2014 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 1.4 ± 4.4 1.1 ± 4.2 0.708
Levinger et al., 2012 3D motion analysis system, force platform- Barefoot 11.6 ± 5.2 14.9 ± 5.0 NR
Nigg et al., 2006 Biodex system- Wearing lab shoes 45.1 No controls NA
Pes planus prevalence (%) Abourazzak et al., 2014 Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot 42 22 0.03*
Guler et al., 2009 Objective manual testing- Barefoot 38.3 No controls NA
Foot pronation (difference in FPI) Abourazzak et al., 2014 Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot 1.5 ± 2.68 0.72 ± 2.63 0.05*
Levinger et al., 2010 Visual observation (FPI)- Barefoot 2.46 ± 2.18 1.35 ± 1.43 0.022*
  1. *Statistically significant p-value at 95% confidence interval
  2. Abbreviations: 3D three dimensional, FPI foot posture index, KOA knee osteoarthritis, NA not applicable, NR not reported