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Table 3 Assessment of study quality using the STROBE checklist

From: Foot characteristics and mechanics in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis

Item Number Recommendations Abourazzak et al., 2014 [18] Al-zahrani amd Bakheit, 2002 [19] Anan et al., 2015 [20] Arnold et al., 2014 [21] Bechard et al., 2012 [22] Booij et al., 2020 [23] Butler et al., 2009 [24] Butler et al., 2011 [25] Charlton et al. 2018 [28] Chang et al., 2007 [27] Chapman et al., 2015 [26] Elbaz et al., 2017 [29] Erhart-Hledik et al., 2017 [30] Gardner et al., 2015 [31] Guler et al., 2009 [32] Guo et al., 2007 [33] Hinman et al., 2012 [34] Hinman et al., 2016 [35] Khan et al., 2019 [36] Krackow et al., 2011 [37]
1a Abstract: study’s design in the title or the abstract No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No
1b Abstract: balanced summary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 Introduction: background and rationale Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 Introduction: objectives, including hypotheses Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Methods: study design early in the paper Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes No
5 Methods: setting, locations, and relevant dates, recruitment, data collection No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6a Methods: cohort eligibility criteria, follow-up NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
6a Methods: case-control: eligibility criteria of cases and controls Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
6a Methods: cross-sectional: eligibility criteria and methods of participants’ selection NA NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6b Methods: cohort: number of exposed and unexposed NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA
6b Methods: case-control: matching criteria Yes Yes Yes NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA
7 Methods: define outcomes, exposures, diagnostic criteria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
8 Methods: sources of data, methods of assessment (measurement) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 Methods: how bias addressed No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes Yes No
10 Methods: power analysis No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No Yes No
11 Methods: quantitative variables addressed Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12a Methods: statistical methods Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12b Methods: statistical subgroups and interactions Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes NA Yes Yes Yes
12c Methods: how missing data addressed NA No NA No No No NA No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
12d Methods: cohort: how loss to follow-up addressed NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
12d Methods: case-control: how matching of cases and controls addressed No No No NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA
12d Methods: cross-sectional: sampling strategy NA NA NA Yes No No Yes Yes No NA Yes Yes No No No Yes No NA No No
12e Methods: sensitivity analyses No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
13a Results: numbers of individuals at each stage Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes
13b Results: reasons for non-participation at each stage No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
13c Results: use of a flow diagram No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
14a Results: characteristics of study participants Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14b Results: number with missing data No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
14c Results: cohort: follow-up time NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
15 Results: cohort: summary measures over time NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
15 Results: case-control: summary measures of exposure Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA No NA NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA
15 Results: cross-sectional: numbers of events or measures NA NA NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes
16a Results: unadjusted estimates Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes
16b Results: category boundaries Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No NA No No
16c Results: translating relative risk into absolute risk NA No No Yes No NA No No No No No NA No NA NA No No NA No No
17 Results: other analyses (subgroups and interactions, and sensitivity) Yes No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes
18 Discussion: summarise key results with reference to study objectives Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
19 Discussion: limitations No No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
20 Discussion: overall interpretation of results considering other relevant evidence Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
21 Discussion: generalisability of results No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No
22 Funding: source of funding No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
% Total percentage of successfully reported criteria in each study 61 42 58 72 58 58 53 72 50 66 63 64 59 63 48 53 61 94 61 56
Item Number Recommendations Levinger et al., 2010 [38] Levinger et al., 2012a [39] Levinger et al., 2012 [40] Lidtke et al., 2010 [41] Nigg et al., 2006 [42] Ohi et al., 2017 [43] Paquette et al., 2015 [44] Park et al., 2016 [45] Reilly et al., 2006 [46] Reilly et al., 2009 [47] Rutherford et al., 2008 [48] Rutherford et al., 2010 [49] Saito et al., 2013 [50] Shakoor et al., 2008 [51] Simic et al., 2013 [52] Tan et al., 2020 [53] Trombini-Souza et al., 2011 [54] Van Tunen et al., 2018 [55] Zhang et al., 2017 [56]
1a Abstract: study’s design in the title or the abstract No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes No
1b Abstract: balanced summary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
2 Introduction: background and rationale Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
3 Introduction: objectives, including hypotheses Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
4 Methods: study design early in the paper No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes No Yes No
5 Methods: setting, locations, and relevant dates, recruitment, data collection Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
6a Methods: cohort eligibility criteria, follow-up NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
6a Methods: case-control: eligibility criteria of cases and controls NA Yes Yes Yes NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes
6a Methods: cross-sectional: eligibility criteria and methods of participants’ selection Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA
6b Methods: cohort: number of exposed and unexposed NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
6b Methods: case-control: matching criteria Yes Yes Yes Yes NA NA Yes Yes Yes NA NA Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA Yes
7 Methods: define outcomes, exposures, diagnostic criteria Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
8 Methods: sources of data, methods of assessment (measurement) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
9 Methods: how bias addressed No No No No No Yes No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No
10 Methods: power analysis No No No No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes No No
11 Methods: quantitative variables addressed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
12a Methods: statistical methods Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
12b Methods: statistical subgroups and interactions Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes
12c Methods: how missing data addressed No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
12d Methods: cohort: how loss to follow-up addressed NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
12d Methods: case-control: how matching of cases and controls addressed NA No No No NA NA No No No NA NA No No NA NA NA NA NA No
12d Methods: cross-sectional: sampling strategy Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes NA NA Yes No NA NA No NA Yes No No NA
12e Methods: sensitivity analyses No No No No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No
13a Results: numbers of individuals at each stage Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
13b Results: reasons for non-participation at each stage No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
13c Results: use of a flow diagram No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
14a Results: characteristics of study participants Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
14b Results: number with missing data No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
14c Results: cohort: follow-up time NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
15 Results: cohort: summary measures over time NA NA NA NA Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA
15 Results: case-control: summary measures of exposure NA NA NA NA NA NA No Yes Yes NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA NA Yes
15 Results: cross-sectional: numbers of events or measures Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes NA
16a Results: unadjusted estimates Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
16b Results: category boundaries No No Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes No No No No No No No No No
16c Results: translating relative risk into absolute risk NA No No NA No NA No NA No No No No No No No No No No No
17 Results: other analyses (subgroups and interactions, and sensitivity) No No No No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes NA No Yes No No No Yes No
18 Discussion: summarise key results with reference to study objectives Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
19 Discussion: limitations No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No
20 Discussion: overall interpretation of results considering other relevant evidence Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
21 Discussion: generalisability of results No No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes
22 Funding: source of funding No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
% Total percentage of successfully reported criteria in each study 56 60 63 62 83 84 69 58 61 81 63 63 52 63 60 69 50 69 48
  1. Abbreviation: NA not applicable