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Table 2 Study and participants’ characteristics (data reported as mean ± standard deviation)

From: Foot characteristics and mechanics in individuals with knee osteoarthritis: systematic review and meta-analysis

No. Author Year published Country Subjects subgroups No. of subjects (Men/ Women) Age (years) BMI (kg/m2)
1 Abourazzak et al. [18] 2014 Morocco KOA 100 (21/79) 59.68 ± 7.64 30.89 ± 4.94
Healthy control 80 (20/60) 48.66 ± 9.30 28.00 ± 3.81
2 Al-Zahrani and Bakheit [19] 2002 UK KOA 58 (14/44) 71 ± 8.40 NR
Healthy control 25 (10/15) 69 ± 7.29 NR
3 Anan et al. [20] 2015 Japan KOA 20 (0/20) 69 ± 4.4 24.4 ± 2.8
Healthy control 17 (0/17) 69.8 ± 4.3 21.3 ± 2.7
4 Arnold et al. [21] 2014 Australia KOA 15 (7/8) 67.0 ± 8.9 30.7 ± 6.2
Healthy control 15 (7/8) 68.2 ± 9.7 25.5 ± 5.3
5 Bechard et al. [22] 2012 Canada KOA 20 (8/12) 55 ± 8 28.9 ± 3.0
Healthy control 20 (12/8) 51 ± 8 25.9 ± 3.2
6 Booij et al. [23] 2020 Netherlands Medial KOA only 30 (14/16) 62.7 ± 5.9 25.5 ± 2.7
7 Butler et al. [24] 2009 USA KOA only 30 (13/17) 63.1 ± 6.8 33.8 ± 6.9
8 Butler et al. [25] 2011 USA Medial KOA 15 (NR/NR) 66.2 ± 7.8 32.2 ± 7.9
Lateral KOA 15 (NR/NR) 65.3 ± 6.4 30.4 ± 7.5
Healthy control 15 (NR/NR) 56.3 ± 10.7 27.8 ± 5.7
9 Chapman et al. [26] 2015 UK KOA only 70 (43/27) 60.3 ± 9.6 30.5 ± ± 4.9
10 Chang et al. [27] 2007 USA KOA only 56 (23/33) 66.6 ± 8.6 29.0 ± 4.2
11 Charlton et al. [28] 2018 Canada Medial KOA only 16 (6/10) 67.4 ± 9.3 24.6 ± 15.1
12 Elbaz et al. [29] 2017 Israel KOA 63 (22/41) 64.2 ± 8.1 NR
Healthy control 30 (21/9) 67.9 ± 8.9 NR
13 Erhart-Hledik et al. [30] 2017 Canada Medial KOA only 10 (9/1) 65.3 ± 9.8 27.8 ± 3.0
14 Gardner et al. [31] 2015 USA KOA 13 (NR/NR) 56.8 ± 5.2 26.6 ± 3.6
Healthy control 11 (NR/NR) 50.0 ± 9.7 25.9 ± 5.4
15 Guler et al. [32] 2009 Turkey KOA only 115 (0/115) 62.11 ± 8.72 32.91 ± 4.14
16 Guo et al. [33] 2007 USA KOA only 10 (6/4) 64 ± 8 29.0 ± 5.6
17 Hinman et al. [34] 2012 Australia KOA only 73 (28/45) 63.3 ± 8.4 27.7 ± 3.6
18 Hinman et al., [35] 2016 Australia KOA only 81 (39/42) 63.3 ± 7.9 29.7 ± 3.7
19 Khan et al. [36] 2019 Malaysia KOA only 20 (NR) 61.5 ± 8.63 NR
20 Krackow et al. [37] 2011 USA KOA 8 (4/4) 59 ± 11.34 33.84 ± 6.90
Healthy control 10 (5/5) 62.50 ± 4.17 28.44 ± 4.23
21 Levinger et al. [38] 2010 Australia KOA 32 (16/16) 65.84 ± 7.57 29.97 ± 5.26
Healthy control 28 (13/15) 65.22 ± 11.41 25.56 ± 3.95
22 Levinger et al. [39] 2012a Australia KOA 50 (27/23) 66.4 ± 7.6 29.6 ± 5.1
Healthy control 28 (13/15) 65.1 ± 11.2 25.7 ± 3.9
23 Levinger et al. [40] 2012b Australia KOA 32 (16/16) 65.8 ± 7.5 29.9 ± 5.2
Healthy control 28 (13/15) 65.2 ± 11.4 25.5 ± 3.9
24 Lidtke et al. [41] 2010 USA KOA 25 (6/19) 60.2 ± 10.6 29.2 ± 4.6
Healthy control 25 (12/13) 58.5 ± 9.1 26.6 ± 3.3
25 Nigg et al. [42] 2006 Canada KOA only 123 (56/67) 57.4 ± 2.2 29.5 ± 1.6
26 Ohi et al. [43] 2017 Japan KOA only 88 (30/58) 74.8 ± 7.58 24.3 ± 3.54
27 Paquette et al. [44] 2015 USA KOA 13 (6/7) 62.5 ± 9 28.3 ± 6.5
Healthy control 13 (5/8) 58.9 ± 8.3 23.9 ± 2.6
28 Park et al. [45] 2016 Canada KOA 24 (7/17) 54 ± 7.3 26.1 ± 3.4
Healthy control 24 (8/16) 52.4 ± 10.6 24.7 ± 3.2
29 Reilly et al. [46] 2006 UK KOA 60 (25/35) 67.80 ± 8.09 NR
Healthy control 60 (28/32) 64.92 ± 12.18 NR
30 Reilly et al. [47] 2009 UK Medial KOA 20 (9/11) 63 ± 8.7 NR
Healthy control 20 (4/16) 56 ± 7.3 NR
31 Rutherford et al. [48] 2008 Canada KOA asymptomatic 50 (32/18) 53 ± 10 26 ± 4
KOA mild to moderate 46 (20/26) 60 ± 9 31 ± 5
KOA severe 44 (20/24) 67 ± 8 32 ± 5
32 Rutherford et al. [49] 2010 Canada KOA 17 (10/7) 56 ± 8.8 29.8 ± 6.5
Healthy control 20 (7/13) 46.5 ± 7.0 25.9 ± 4.8
33 Saito et al. [50] 2013 Japan KOA 50 (10/40) 75 NR
Elderly control 44 (8/36) 74 NR
34 Shakoor et al. [51] 2008 USA KOA 27 (5/22) 54 ± 12 37.8 ± 8.6
Healthy control 14 (5/9) 47 ± 14 29.8 ± 5.6
35 Simic et al. [52] 2013 Australia KOA only 22 (9/13) 69.7 ± 9.0 28.4 ± 4.8
36 Tan et al. [53] 2020 Australia KOA only 21 (7/14) 58 ± 8 27.0 ± 4.8
37 Trombini-Souza et al. [54] 2011 Brazil KOA 21 (0/21) 6 5 ± 5 NR
Healthy control 24 (0/24) 65 ± 4 NR
38 Van Tunen et al. [55] 2018 Australia Medial KOA only 21 (9/12) 63.4 ± 7.0 29.8 ± 3.6
39 Zhang et al. [56] 2017 China KOA 23 (0/23) 64.2 ± 6.6 23.3 ± 1.9
Healthy control 23 (0/23) 62.1 ± 2.4 22.6 ± 1.8
  1. Abbreviations: KOA knee osteoarthritis, BMI Body Mass Index, NR not reported