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Table 2 Muscular activation levels (Mean ± SD)

From: People with chronic ankle instability benefit from brace application in highly dynamic change of direction movements

  Control group FI-group FMI-group
Without Soft Semi-rigid Without Soft Semi-rigid Without Soft Semi-rigid
M. tibialis anterior (Mean ± SD), % stride cycle
 Preactivation 92.5 ± 45.8 88.5 ± 43.1 84.9 ± 42.0 83.0 ± 30.9 75.0 ± 30.9 83.6 ± 33.5 93.9 ± 33.6 88.5 ± 30.5 87.7 ± 33.0
 0–100 ms after foot strike 92.7 ± 70.8 95.8 ± 68.8 89.1 ± 60.3 90.7 ± 35.9 85.0 ± 35.7 91.9 ± 43.2 85.3 ± 30.0 85.7 ± 23.3 89.8 ± 29.1
 100–200 ms after foot strike 84.5 ± 61.8 90.3 ± 56.4 83.0 ± 52.5 79.1 ± 35.7 72.3 ± 38.0 75.5 ± 41.3 65.6 ± 28.3 68.2 ± 21.6 65.3 ± 21.9
M. peroneus longus (Mean ± SD), % stride cycle
 Preactivation a,b 151.1 ± 46.7 147.5 ± 46.9 133.4 ± 44.0 155.4 ± 30.8 149.0 ± 28.7 143.6 ± 33.5 115.4 ± 39.4 122.6 ± 31.4 107.7 ± 36.8
 0–100 ms after foot strike a 193.3 ± 46.4 190.6 ± 47.8 184.9 ± 50.8 171.9 ± 56.9 170.6 ± 54.5 164.8 ± 56.8 186.1 ± 55.1 176.7 ± 53.1 169.9 ± 47.4
 100–200 ms after foot strike 156.5 ± 49.7 150.0 ± 49.1 160.3 ± 72.4 150.3 ± 47.6 150.6 ± 43.5 151.6 ± 52.2 183.0 ± 57.9 182.4 ± 63.2 165.5 ± 50.7
M. soleus (Mean ± SD), % stride cycle
 Preactivation 104.3 ± 31.5 104.4 ± 38.5 100.5 ± 30.7 115.4 ± 40.4 107.6 ± 39.5 97.6 ± 24.6 82.5 ± 34.2 93.5 ± 37.4 88.5 ± 31.4
 0–100 ms after foot strike 136.6 ± 26.8 131.1 ± 25.3 131.0 ± 21.9 137.6 ± 18.2 145.2 ± 36.4 144.2 ± 34.8 127.9 ± 33.2 130.5 ± 27.3 115.0 ± 22.7
 100–200 ms after foot strike 146.1 ± 33.0 142.6 ± 34.2 130.9 ± 33.5 163.4 ± 51.8 165.5 ± 47.4 164.0 ± 51.3 176.5 ± 48.8 156.7 ± 45.5 152.1 ± 42.9
M. gastrocnemius lat. (Mean ± SD), % stride cycle
 Preactivation 143.3 ± 49.7 147.9 ± 54.0 137.3 ± 55.5 146.9 ± 42.4 146.5 ± 48.0 142.7 ± 49.8 141.1 ± 45.9 135.7 ± 39.9 131.3 ± 39.0
 0–100 ms after foot strike 107.8 ± 24.5 108.6 ± 27.9 101.7 ± 25.5 103.6 ± 39.8 115.6 ± 47.6 110.6 ± 40.6 106.1 ± 43.2 108.0 ± 41.3 102.8 ± 32.3
 100–200 ms after foot strike 126.4 ± 39.2 118.3 ± 40.6 110.4 ± 34.9 132.9 ± 54.6 133.9 ± 58.7 135.5 ± 62.0 153.6 ± 58.8 153.1 ± 72.0 130.4 ± 41.8
  1. a indicates a significant difference between the condition with the semi-rigid brace and the condition without a brace
  2. b indicates a significant difference between the condition with the semi-rigid brace and the condition with the soft brace