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Table 3 Final quality assessment scores at an outcome level for all included publications

From: Diabetes-related foot disease in Australia: a systematic review of the prevalence and incidence of risk factors, disease and amputation in Australian populations

Reference (alphabetical order) Foot Outcome Quality assessment (Hoy,2012)a
1. Representation of national populationb 2. True representation 3. Random Selection 4. Minimal Non-response bias 5. Data collected directly 6. Acceptable Case Definition 7. Data collection instrument valid and reliable c 8. Data collection mode consistent 9. Numerator(s) and denominator(s) appropriate Total Score
Baba,2014 [18]d PN 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
  PAD 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Foot ulcer 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
  Foot ulcer hospitalisation 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Baba,2015a [34]d PN 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
  PAD 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
  Previous foot ulcer 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
  Amputation 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 5
Baba,2015b [35]d Foot ulcer 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 5
Clarke,2006 [33] Amputation 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 7
Commons,2015 [19]d Diabetic foot infection hospitalisation 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 7
  Amputation 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 7
Davis,2012 [32]d PN 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
  PAD 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 7
Davis,2006 [11] Amputation 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 5
Dillon,2017 [31] Amputation 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 8
Ewald,2001 [30] Foot complication 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 5
Jia,2017 [29]d PN 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
PAD 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
Previous foot ulcer 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 8
Previous amputation 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 8
Foot deformity 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
Foot infection 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 9
Kurowski,2015 [28] Amputation 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 7
Lazzarini,2015 [24]d Hospitalisation for foot complication 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 7
  Amputation 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 7
Lazzarini,2016a [26]d Foot ulcer 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Foot infection 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Foot complication hospitalisation 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
Lazzarini,2016b [27]d Critical PAD 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
  Amputation 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 8
Lazzarini,2017 [25]d PN 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
  PAD 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
  Previous foot ulcer 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
  Previous amputation 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
  Foot deformity 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
  Foot complications 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 7
Norman,2010 [23] Amputation 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 6
O’Hara,1998 [21]d PAD 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 6
  Amputation 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 6
O’Rourke,2012 [22] Major amputation 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 6
Payne,2000 [20] Amputation 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 8
Tapp,2003 [10]d PN 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 9
PAD 2 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 9
Previous foot ulcer 2 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 7
TOTAL 45 publication-outcomes 5 (24)e 44 34 33 28 39 18 45 41  
  1. a All items were scored 1 = Low risk of bias or 0 = High risk of bias
  2. bThis item was scored: 2 = If the population of interest was a close representation of the national population; 1 = If the population of interest was a close representation of a provincial (state) population; 0 = If the population of interest was neither a close representation of a national or provincial population
  3. c Data collection instrument was considered as valid and reliable if the instrument or examination used had been previously reported as being valid and/or reliable;
  4. d The same publication reported several outcomes of interest that were individually quality assessed
  5. e Indicates five recorded a score of 2 (close representation of a national population) and 24 as score of 1 (close representation of a provincial/regional population)