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Table 5 Exercise and orthoses approaches used to manage a typical patient with first MTP joint OA. Values are expressed as Number (%), where (%) indicates the proportion of respondents indicating they would use an approach from the given category

From: Management of first metatarsophalangeal joint osteoarthritis by physical therapists and podiatrists in Australia and the United Kingdom: a cross-sectional survey of current clinical practice

Approach categorySpecific approachTotal SamplePodiatristsPhysical therapistsp-value
Exercise approachesAny170 (85)86 (76)84 (97)< 0.01
 Local/intrinsic foot strengthening112 (66)43 (50)69 (82)< 0.01
 Lower limb/extrinsic foot strengthening103 (61)37 (43)66 (79)< 0.01
 Aerobic training33 (19)5 (6)28 (33)< 0.01
 Proprioception/balance99 (58)28 (33)71 (85)< 0.01
 Flexibility/range of movement123 (72)57 (66)66 (79)0.07
 Hydrotherapy64 (38)24 (28)40 (48)< 0.01
 Functional task training33 (19)5 (6)28 (33)< 0.01
 Pilates27 (16)10 (12)17 (20)0.13
 Increasing general activity101 (59)42 (49)59 (70)< 0.01
 Other10 (6)7 (8)3 (4)0.21
Orthotic devicesAny166 (83)109 (97)57 (66)< 0.01
 Over-the-counter80 (48)44 (40)36 (63)< 0.01
 Prefabricated/semi-custom83 (50)57 (52)26 (46)0.41
 Custom109 (66)85 (78)24 (42)< 0.01
  1. Please note, percentage values for each sub-category is the percentage of respondents of the total responding for that category
  2. *P < 0.001; ** P < 0.01; *** P < 0.05