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Table 3 Quality criteria for study outcomes for COSMIN. Based on Terwee et al. [29]

From: Comparison of 3D scanning versus traditional methods of capturing foot and ankle morphology for the fabrication of orthoses: a systematic review

Property Rating Outcome Quality Criteria
Criterion validity + Convincing arguments that criterion standard is “gold” AND correlation OR ICC with criterion standard ≥0.70.
? No convincing arguments that gold standard is “gold” OR no correlations OR ICC have been calculated.
Correlation OR ICC with criterion standard < 0.70, despite adequate design and method.
Reliability (intra-rater, inter-rater) + ICC or weighted Kappa ≥0.70 OR Pearson γ or Spearman ρ ≥ 0.80 with evidence provided that no systematic change has occurred.
? No ICC, weighted Kappa, Pearson γ or Spearman ρ is determined OR doubtful designa.
ICC or weighted Kappa < 0.70 OR Pearson γ or Spearman ρ < 0.80, despite adequate design and method.
Measurement error + SEM < SDC OR SEM outside the LOA
? SEM is not defined OR doubtful designa.
SEM ≥ SDC OR SEM equal or inside the LOA
  1. Abbreviation: ICC intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM standard error of measurement, SDC smallest detectable change, LOA limits of agreement
  2. aDoubtful design = any essential weakness in design or execution of the study