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Table 3 Range and frequency of foot self-management actions and risk behaviours across interventions

From: Behaviour change approaches for individuals with diabetes to improve foot self-management: a scoping review

   Routine self care Trauma avoidance Warning signs and actions
Daily technical skills General technical skills Daily risk prevention measures General risk prevention measures Self screening Decision making
Author Year moisturise daily Wash and or dry feet daily Massage feet daily Stretching and strengthening exercises Dry or no moisturiser between toes Dry feet cut or file nails regularly Gentle debridement of callus Wear cotton socks wear socks that fit wear shoes that fit, Use closed shoes Examine shoes for cracks Wear socks when wearing shoes Inspect inside shoes wear insoles all of the day time Avoid using abrasives never walk barefoot get corns treated by a podiatrist Get your feet checked by a professional once a year keep useful numbers handy Record foot temp daily Inspect feet daily When to reduce activity levels When to seek professional help
Borges 2008 x     x x x    x x   x     x x      x   
Cerrahoglu 2016     x                      
Chantelau 1994            x      x          
Lifeeng Fan 2013 x x x x x x x    x x          x    x   x
Lifeng Fan 2013                          
Hamalainene 1998 x x   x    x            x x       
Iunes 2014 x    x x x x   x    x      x x      x   
Keukenkamp 2018            x      x   x        
Kruger 1992   x      x x    x             x   x
Lavery 2007                       x x x x
Lavery 2012            x      x          
Ledda 1997 x       x               x   x   x
Liang 2012 x x                      x   
Lincoln 2008 x x     x             x      x   x
Ronnemaa 1997 x x   x    x x    x    x     x x       
Skafield 2015            x            x x x x
Li 2018 x x    x x x   x   x     x    x   x    x   
Searle 2019     x                      
Vatankhah 2009 x x      x      x   x          x   x