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Table 1 Studies assessing toe gap in footwear worn by people with diabetes

From: Toe gaps and their assessment in footwear for people with diabetes: a narrative review

Study Fit Criteria Used Heel
(cm)
Toe Gap (cm) Type / No. Participants   Gender Footwear Type
T L B M F Min Max P CG D DN Age M / F
Barwick [20] 2 1.0 2.0 555 12 159 COMMERCIAL & BESPOKE
Chantelau [21] 1.0 1.5 100 568 64 COMMERCIAL
Chicharro-Luna [22] 3.0 1.0 1.5 91 17 59.6 ± 10.3 (DN)
57.7 ± 13.7 (D)
13/4 (DN)
57/34 (D)
COMMERCIAL
Fan [23] 2.5 1.3 56 55.8 ± 13.2 26/30 COMMERCIAL
Isip [24] 1.0 2.0 170 64 46/124 COMMERCIAL
Litzelman [25] 1.9 352 60.4 ± 9.6 COMMERCIAL & BESPOKE
McInnes [26] 1.0 1.5 118 82 40–75 COMMERCIAL
Nancarrow [27] 2.5 1.0 87 13 54/46 COMMERCIAL & BESPOKE
  1. Fit Criteria Used: T = Footwear type, L = Fastening type e.g. laces, B = Toe box shape, M = Material type, F = Fit. Heel = Maximum heel height (cm)
  2. Type / No. of Participants: P (Patient group without diabetes); CG (Control group i.e. without diabetes); D = with diabetes; DN = with both diabetes and neuropathy
  3. Age: Usually mean with standard deviation shown where available. Where unavailable, an age range is provided