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Table 4 Outcomes changes over time compared to baseline values throughout treatment (marginal estimated mean improvements), by group

From: Should ice application be replaced with neurocryostimulation for the treatment of acute lateral ankle sprains? A randomized clinical trial

  Mean score change (95% CI) Time main
effect (RTE)a
(n = 41)
NCS
(experimental
group, n = 20)
Ice
(comparison
group, n = 21)
Functional capacity (LEFS scores, 0–80)
 1 week 22.0 (13.6 to 30.3) 17.6 (10.2 to 25.0) 0.340
 2 weeks 32.8 (26.0 to 39.6) 30.1 (22.4 to 37.7) 0.514
 4 weeks 42.7 (37.2 to 48.1) 38.3 (31.1 to 45.6) 0.716
 6 weeks 45.2 (40.3 to 50.0) 41.6 (33.5 to 49.7) 0.800
Pain at rest (VAS, 0–10)
 1 week − 0.4 (+ 0.8 to − 1.5) −1.3 (− 0.6 to − 2.1) 0.375
 2 weeks −1.1 (+ 0.2 to − 2.3) −1.9 (− 0.8 to −3.0) 0.534
 4 weeks − 1.6 (− 0.3 to − 2.9) − 2.1 (− 0.8 to − 3.4) 0.668
 6 weeks − 1.8 (− 0.6 to − 2.9) − 2.2 (− 0.9 to − 3.4) 0.705
Pain during usual activities (VAS, 0–10)
 1 week − 2.1 (− 0.6 to − 3.6) − 2.3 (− 1.3 to − 3.3) 0.382
 2 weeks −2.8 (− 1.5 to − 4.2) −3.4 (− 2.4 to − 4.4) 0.490
 4 weeks −3.8 (− 2.4 to − 5.2) −4.1 (− 2.9 to − 5.3) 0.682
 6 weeks −4.1 (− 2.7 to − 5.6) −4.4 (− 3.2 to − 5.6) 0.774
Oedema (Figure-of-8, cm)
 1 week −0.69 (− 0.05 to − 1.34) −0.64 (+ 0.11 to − 1.38) 0.496
 2 weeks − 1.06 (− 0.29 to − 1.83) −0.56 (+ 0.28 to − 1.40) 0.508
 4 weeks − 1.24 (− 0.29 to − 2.18) −0.93 (− 0.19 to − 1.67) 0.532
 6 weeks −1.15 (− 0.20 to − 2.09) −0.76 (− 0.05 to − 1.47) 0.519
Dorsiflexion ROM (WBLT, cm)
 1 week 2.4 (− 0.1 to 4.9) 3.6 (1.1 to 6.0) 0.414
 2 weeks 4.1 (1.9 to 6.3) 4.8 (2.2 to 7.4) 0.550
 4 weeks 5.2 (3.0 to 7.4) 5.9 (3.2 to 8.6) 0.643
 6 weeks 5.7 (3.4 to 8.0) 5.9 (3.1 to 8.7) 0.668
  1. aRelative treatment effect (nparLD analysis), for appreciation of the time main effect. Corresponds to an effect size of the time. Values range [0, 1], relative to the null hypothesis (H0) expected value (0,5)
  2. LEFS Lower Extremity Functional Scale, NCS neurocryostimulation, ROM range of motion, RTE relative treatment effect, VAS visual analog scale, WBLT Weight-Bearing Lunge Test.