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Table 2 Comparison of participant characteristics and outcomes between symptomatic (n = 270) and asymptomatic control (n = 124) groups

From: Quality of life, function and disability in individuals with chronic ankle symptoms: a cross-sectional online survey

Characteristic Symptomatic Asymptomatic controls MD (95%CI) p value
Age, years 48.4 (11.9, 270) 49.9 (12.3, 124) 1.5 [−1.1, 4.1] 0.25
Sex, Female n (%) 162 (60%) 101 (81.5%) 0.34 [0.20, 0.57] a <  0.001
BMI, kg/m2 30.9 (8.1, 266) 24.1 (3.9, 124) −6.8 [− 8.0, − 5.6] <  0.001
AQoL-6D, /100
 Total 72.3 (11.8, 263) 84.9 (12.4, 124) −12.6 [− 15.4, − 9.9] <  0.001
 Independent Living 76.9 (15.8, 263) 93.8 (16.5, 124) −16.9 [−20.6, − 13.3] <  0.001
 Relationships 81.3 (16.1, 263) 92.4 (16.8, 124) −11.1 [− 14.8, −7.3] <  0.001
 Mental Health 69.5 (17.0, 263) 77.3 (17.8, 124) −7.7 [− 11.7, −3.8] <  0.001
 Coping 67.1 (16.4, 263) 74.3 (17.1, 124) −7.2 [−11.0, −3.4] <  0.001
 Pain 54.1 (20.5, 263) 85.8 (21.4, 124) −31.8 [− 36.5, −27.0] <  0.001
 Senses 81.0 (10.9, 263) 85.3 (11.4, 124) −4.3 [−6.8, −1.8] 0.001
FAAM- ADL, % 67.7 (16.9, 266) 95.9 (17.7, 113) −28.2 [− 32.2, −24.1] <  0.001
FAAM- Sport, % 48.5 (21.0, 266) 95.9 (22.0, 111) −47.4 [−52.4, − 42.3] <  0.001
FAAM-level of function, n (%)
 Severely abnormal 29 (10.7%) 0 (0%) 11% [7, 15] b  
 Abnormal 127 (47.0%) 0 (0%) 47% [41, 53] b  
 Nearly normal 106 (39.3%) 9 (7.3%) 32% [25, 39] b  
 Normal 8 (3.0%) 115 (92.7%) −90% [− 95, −85] b  
AOS- Overall, % 37.4 (19.4, 266) 3.9 (20.4, 108) 33.5 [28.8, 38.2] <  0.001
AOS- Pain, % 38.0 (18.7, 266) 3.0 (19.6, 99) 35.0 [30.3, 39.6] <  0.001
AOS- Disability, % 37.1 (22.1, 266) 4.6 (23.2, 108) 32.5 [27.2, 37.9] <  0.001
CAIT, /30 10.4 (5.7, 229) 28.9 (5.9, 124) −18.5 [−19.8, −17.1] <  0.001
IPAQ total activity, MET-min/week 3417.4 (3339.5, 265) 3259.3 (3492.7, 124) 158.0 [− 616.8, 932.9] 0.69
IPAQ, level of activity, n (%)
 High 131 (48.5%) 61 (49.2%) 0% [−10, 11] b  
 Moderate 79 (29.3%) 48 (38.7%) −9% [−19, 1] b  
 Low 59 (21.9%) 15 (12.1%) 10% [3, 18] b  
  1. a Odds ratio, b Risk difference.
  2. Abbreviations: n Number; BMI Body mass index; SD Standard deviation; MD Mean difference; CI Confidence interval; p P value/significance level; AOS Ankle osteoarthritis scale; FAAM Foot and Ankle Ability Measure; AQoL-6D The Assessment of Quality of Life questionnaire-6D; CAIT The Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool; IPAQ The International Physical Activity Questionnaire;
  3. All outcomes adjusted for age, sex and BMI
  4. Significant difference at (p < 0.05) based on ANCOVA post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni correction or Pearson’s Chi-squared.
  5. Data presented as group mean (SD, n) and MD (CI), unless otherwise stated.