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Table 2 Univariate statistical analyses of associations between foot and ankle characteristics with knee symptoms and function

From: Associations of foot and ankle characteristics with knee symptoms and function in individuals with patellofemoral osteoarthritis

  Weightbearing ankle dorsiflexion range of motion Foot Posture Index
(FPI)
Foot mobility
    Arch Height Difference^ Midfoot Width Difference^ Foot Mobility Magnitude
  Correlation R2 p value Correlation R2 p value Correlation R2 p value Correlation R2 p value Correlation R2 p value
Knee pain provocation tests:
Repeated single step-ups 0.136 0.018 0.070 − 0.183 − 0.033 0.021* − 0.094 − 0.009 0.212 − 0.133 − 0.018 0.076 − 0.201 − 0.040 0.007*
Repeated double-leg sit-to-stand 0.125 0.016 0.135 −0.202 − 0.041 0.021* − 0.045 − 0.002 0.591 − 0.096 − 0.009 0.267 − 0.170 − 0.029 0.043*
Patient-reported measures of knee symptoms and function:
Average knee pain −0.277 − 0.077 < 0.001* − 0.059 − 0.003 0.461 0.036 0.001 0.628 −0.053 − 0.003 0.482 0.030 0.001 0.693
Worst knee pain −0.140 −0.020 0.059 −0.035 − 0.001 0.664 0.037 0.001 0.625 −0.057 −0.003 0.444 0.019 0.000 0.799
Max knee pain during stair ambulation −0.173 −0.030 0.020* −0.007 − 0.000 0.932 0.008 0.000 0.920 0.047 0.002 0.534 0.040 0.002 0.596
Max knee pain during squatting −0.059 −0.003 0.433 0.039 0.002 0.629 0.133 0.018 0.078 0.146 0.021 0.052 0.105 0.011 0.163
Max knee pain rising from sitting −0.073 −0.005 0.331 0.002 0.000 0.979 0.068 0.005 0.366 0.001 0.000 0.988 0.064 0.004 0.398
AKPS 0.159 0.025 0.032* −0.124 −0.015 0.118 −0.124 − 0.015 0.098 − 0.037 −0.001 0.626 −0.116 − 0.013 0.123
KOOS-symptoms 0.062 0.004 0.405 0.052 0.003 0.517 −0.045 − 0.002 0.547 0.108 0.012 0.150 −0.039 −0.002 0.603
KOOS-pain 0.074 0.005 0.319 0.093 0.009 0.241 −0.057 −0.003 0.449 0.077 0.006 0.304 −0.039 −0.002 0.600
KOOS-ADL 0.091 0.008 0.223 0.082 0.007 0.300 −0.095 −0.009 0.205 0.066 0.004 0.381 −0.091 −0.008 0.225
KOO-sport/rec 0.058 0.003 0.441 0.032 0.001 0.690 −0.011 −0.000 0.883 0.000 0.000 0.996 −0.018 −0.000 0.807
KOOS-QoL 0.084 0.007 0.262 0.078 0.006 0.326 0.042 0.002 0.572 0.003 0.000 0.964 0.019 0.000 0.802
KOOS-PF 0.048 0.002 0.522 0.026 0.001 0.746 0.042 0.002 0.579 −0.006 −0.000 0.941 0.009 0.000 0.905
  1. *p ≤ 0.05
  2. ^ data not normally distributed and presented as Spearman’s Rho
  3. mm: millimetres (0 mm = no pain; 100 mm = worst pain possible); AKPS: Anterior Knee Pain Scale (0 = maximal disability; 100 = no disability); KOOS: Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score; (0 = extreme knee problems; 100 = no knee problems), ADL: activities of daily living; sport/rec: sport and recreation; QoL: quality of life; PF: patellofemoral