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Table 3 Definitions of the categories used to assign responses from the cognitive debriefing interviews, focus groups and expert reviews in order to organise decisions for survey item revision

From: Development of a national survey on foot involvement among people with psoriatic arthritis in Australia using a best practice approach: a survey development protocol

Categories Description Example(s)
Poor wording Word changed or spelling error Do you see any errors in wording?
For example, ‘crocked’ changed to ‘crooked’, ‘ethic group’ changed to ‘ethnic group’, remove the word ‘hobble’
Comprehension and interpretation Ability to understand the question, to accurately interpret its meaning and to follow the item instructions What does ‘anxiety’ and ‘depression’ mean to you?
Can you tell me, in your own words, what the instructions are asking you to do?
Can you repeat this question in your own words?
Judgement Ability to make considered decisions How confident are you that you are able to mark accurately where you have or had experienced pain on the diagram?
How confident are you that you can remember how many times you fell over the past 12 months?
Navigation Navigate features of the survey and progression through the survey Is it easy or hard to scroll to see the questions?
Would you like the option to go back and review or edit your responses?
Timescales Appropriate timescales used, acceptable recall periods Is it easy or hard for you to remember when your symptoms first started?
Do you feel that the timescale of this question is appropriate
Redundancy and repetition Survey item is not required, no longer useful, or is too similar to another item Do you think that any of the questions are repetitious?
Is this question relevant to you?
Response options Acceptable number and range of response options Do you think that the answers you can choose from allow you to answer the questions in the way that you want?
Emotiveness Triggers an unwanted emotional response How does answering this question make you feel? For example, sad, frustrated, uncomfortable?
Responder burden Number of survey items, time taken to complete the survey, survey length Do you think that the respondents will have the motivation, knowledge and ability to answer the questions?
Do you think the length of the survey is burdensome?
Unclear purpose Survey items collecting data that do not appear to alignment with the research purpose For example, collecting information about global disease is not related to the purpose of the survey about foot problems, explanation required.
Missing information Information not already captured within the survey Suggestion to add a question:
To find out if patients access services in the public or private settings
To identify the impact of proximal issues on the foot and mobility
Cultural sensitivity Cultural factors that affect the functioning of the survey in a different country Can you think of any problems or issues that patients in New Zealand might encounter?
Do you feel that the survey has reasonable cultural sensitivity (taking into account the cultural and language differences between Australia and New Zealand) and can be adapted for people with psoriatic arthritis living in New Zealand?
For example, the wording of different types of footwear will be different between countries
Face and content validity Sufficient coverage of items, meaningful to patients Does the survey consist of a broad range of items that are all relevant, in their coverage, to the nature, extent, location and impact of psoriatic arthritis-related foot involvement on patients’ daily lives?
Does the survey appear, on the face of it, to measure the problems you have with your feet and the impact it has on your life?