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Table 3 Methods of assessing lower extremity health in patients with MS

From: Research on lower extremity health in patients with multiple sclerosis: a systematic scoping review

Measurement focus Data collection method References
Gait (biomechanics) 3D or visual gait analysis of gait parameters (e.g. step width, swing, stride length) [46, 54,55,56, 59, 67,68,69,70, 73, 76, 77, 79, 84]
Fast walking speed [48, 53]
Gait (ability) 2-min walk test [49, 53, 58, 59, 61]
10-m walk test [18, 70]
5-min walk test [74]
Stair climb test [18, 61]
Bessou’s locometer [81]
Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale (self-reported) [58, 65, 67, 72, 74, 81]
Mobility Timed up-and-go test [18, 48, 49, 52, 58, 59, 70, 81]
Timed 25-ft walk [44, 48, 49, 54, 58,59,60,61, 65, 74, 77, 79, 81, 83]
500-m walk [77]
Aerobic capacity and endurance 6-min walk test [18, 45, 58, 62, 63, 70, 79, 81]
One-legged cycling test [62]
Physical activity International Physical Activity Questionnaire [67]
Muscle strength Isokinetic dynamometry [49, 55, 61]
Isometric dynamometry [18, 51, 57, 61,62,63,64, 77, 79]
Dynamometer [54, 82, 83]
Sit to stand (5 times) [61]
Muscle endurance Number of repetitions on seated leg press [53]
3-min stepping test [55]
Muscle stiffness and spasticity Multiple Sclerosis Spasticity Scale [53]
Ashworth Scale [50, 71, 81]
Tardieu Scale [71]
Functional ambulatory score [65]
Resistance to passive range of motion [75]
Tendon reflexes [75]
Dynamic or passive range of motion [68, 69, 76]
Balance Stabilometry or posturography [48, 54, 63, 72]
Obstacle negotiation [70]
Timed standing on one leg [50, 51]
Static postural control [58]
Centre of pressure [52, 79]
Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale [67, 74, 81]
Berg Balance Scale [18, 49, 80, 81]
Specific foot assessments Vibration perception [50, 54, 60]
Force distribution [66, 78]
Plantar pressure [66, 78]
Neuropathic pain [60]
Sudomotor function [60]
Oedema: Fovea’s sign, Stemmer’s sign [80]
Sensation: Semmes-Weinstein monofilament [50]
Foot deformities [75]