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Table 4 Plantar pressure differences between insoles (p < 0.05). MP = mean pressure (kPa); PP = peak pressure (kPa); CA = contact area (%). Arrows indicate significant post hoc differences between insoles. (↓ = insole has values less than …; ↑ = insole has values greater than …). s = significantly different to static standing value, y = significantly different to dynamic standing value, w = significantly different to walking value. a significant interaction effect for insole and task

From: Development and evaluation of a dual density insole for people standing for long periods of time at work

Region Variable Insole Mean  
A B C D E F G H I Walking Static Standing Dynamic Standing
Whole foot MP           32.23sy 22.10wd 21.22ws  
PP ↓EFGHI ↓DEFGHI ↓EFGHI ↓GHI↑B ↓GHI↑AB ↓GHI↑ABC ↑ABCDEF ↑ABCDEF ↑ABCDEF 296.82sy 96.83wy 143.04ws a
CA           51.88s 59.19wy 53.92s  
Heel MP           42.96sy 32.27w 33.91w  
PP   ↓DEGHI ↓GHI ↑B    ↑B ↑BC ↑B 216.13sy 83.50wy 113.0ws a
CA           54.91sy 69.39w 68.25w  
Lateral midfoot MP ↓CFH   ↑A    ↑A   ↑A   28.86 27.79y 26.00s  
PP           112.99sy 60.71wy 90.57ws  
CA ↓H        ↑A   57.89sy 75.29wy 66.68ws  
Medial midfoot MP ↑DGHI ↑DFGHI ↑DFGHI ↓ABCEFH ↑DG ↓BC ↓ABCE ↓ABC↑D ↓ABC 15.19 16.19 14.96  
PP ↑GH ↑DGHI ↑DGI ↓BC ↑G ↑G ↓ABCEF ↓AB ↓B 83.69sy 45.53wy 63.45ws  
CA ↓C↑DG ↑DGI ↑A ↓ABCE ↑DG ↓C ↓ABCE ↓C ↓BC 37.42sy 51.05wy 44.19ws a
MTPJ 1 MP ↓DH   ↓D ↑AC      ↑A 46.15sy 26.63wy 21.18ws  
PP ↓GHI ↓DGHI ↓GI ↑B   ↓GHI ↑ABCF ↑AB ↑ABCF 210.42sy 66.03wy 100.27ws a
CA           63.86 67.99y 58.16s a
MTPJ 2–3 MP    ↓DE ↑C ↑C      41.98sy 22.58wy 19.06ws  
PP    ↓DEFGHI ↑C ↑C ↑C ↑C ↑C ↑C 200.54sy 53.58wy 92.83ws  
CA           64.60y 64.74y 55.18ws  
MTPJ 4–5 MP           27.91sy 19.33wy 17.92ws  
PP           148.48sy 50.64wy 85.59ws  
CA           54.26 58.13 51.70s  
Hallux MP           38.09sy 17.87w 16.94w a
PP ↓GH ↓EGHI ↓EFGHI ↓GHI ↑BC ↑C ↑ABCD ↑ABCD ↑BCD 258.19sy 48.89wy 106.88ws a
CA           52.68 52.59y 46.79s  
Toes MP    ↓DE ↑C ↑C      41.14sy 23.10wy 19.57ws  
PP   ↓EH ↓DEGHI ↑C ↑BC   ↑C ↑BC ↑C 200.21sy 23.85wy 94.46ws a
CA           63.27 65.96y 56.54s