Skip to main content

Table 3 Modified Downs and Black Quality Index results for each study

From: Effect of different orthotic materials on plantar pressures: a systematic review

Authors, date Reporting External validity Internal validity – bias Internal validity – confounding Power Total (max. 28) Total %
01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27
Healy et al., 2012 [6] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 U 1 U 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 U 1 U 0 20 71
McCormick et al., 2013 [15] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 U 1 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 0 23 82
Rao et al., 2009 [16] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 U 1 U U 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 U 1 U 0 20 71
Rogers et al., 2006 [17] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 U 1 U 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 21 75
Tong & Ng, 2010 [18] 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 0 1 1 1 U 1 U 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 21 75
  1. 0 = No, 1 = Yes, U = Unable to be determined (received a score of 0)
  2. For the full criteria of the Modified Downs and Black Quality Index see Additional file 1