Skip to main content

Table 4 Description of insole features designed to reduce neuropathic forefoot plantar ulcer occurrence found in the literature

From: Footwear and insole design features that reduce neuropathic plantar forefoot ulcer risk in people with diabetes: a systematic literature review

The description provided on insole design Study(s)
Fully custom-made insoles with multi-density and multi-layered materials, an open-cell or cross cell material top cover.
Modification: Local removal of material on the insole, local softening, adding metatarsal, hallux pad or bar on the insole, replacement of the top cover
Bus et al. 2011 [30]
Custom made insole made from multilayered materials with cork base added with micro cork, a mid-layer of EVA base multiform. Additional metatarsal pad or bar with extra arch support. Bus et al. 2013 [57]
Insole made of 12 mm microcellular rubber (MCR), shore value 200 Charanya et al. 2004 [41]
Metatarsal dome, arch supports, and extra arch supports
Insoles made of 5 mm Lunalastic as the top layer, 8 mm Lunasoft SL as the bottom layer, 1.1 mm Rhenoflex 3208® as internal reinforcement. Every layer of arch support has 5 mm thickness of Lunalastic material.
Guldemond et al. 2007 [42]
3 mm Shore A 350 EVA as 1st layer, 2 mm Velcro and velvet in 2nd layer and 6 mm Shore A 500 Poron in the third layer Lin et al. 2013 [64]
Multilayered with 40° shore hardness EVA base and Poron top cover, cut-out in the affected metatarsal head. López-Moral et al. 2019 [60]
Insole base with 5 mm 500 Shore A EVA with three different metatarsal bar (MB) positioning out of two different types materials: 200 Shore A EVA, 200 Shore A Poron Martinez-Santos et al. 2019 [47]
1.27 cm thick number 2 plastazote with shore value approx. 35, metatarsal pad (MP), positioned proximal to metatarsal heads Mueller et al. 2006 [48]
Full length 3 mm blue medium density Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA) shell and 6 mm grey Poron top cover Paton et al. 2012 [50]
SM-2, 3 & 4: ¾ custom insoles with EVA base and 3 mm PPT full-length top cover
SM-5 & 6: Custom insoles with EVA base and 3 mm PPT full-length top cover
Praet et al. 2003 [51]
Insoles from the static footprint and foam box impression, configured with arch support, metatarsal bar, soft fillers. Insole materials: PPT, Duuroterm, Alcaform Rizzo et al. 2012 [61]
Custom insoles: 35 & 550 Shore A hardness EVA (14 mm thickness) for custom made insoles manufactured from positive plaster moulds, metatarsal bars proximal to II-IV MTH’s.
Prefabricated insole: Hardcore EVA base, 120 Shore hardness microfiber top layer (GloboTec® comfort 312,750,501,400)
Tang et al. 2014 [53]