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Table 3 Description of footwear features designed to reduce neuropathic forefoot plantar ulcer occurrence found in the literature

From: Footwear and insole design features that reduce neuropathic plantar forefoot ulcer risk in people with diabetes: a systematic literature review

The description provided on footwear upper and sole design Study(s)
Bottine (12.5 cm) or high footwear (16 cm) for upper height
The toughened outsole, resilient material on the heel
Toughened leg and tongue
Rocker profile outsole with early and normal pivot point
Arts et al., 2012 [38], Bus et al. 2013 [57]
Preece et al. 2017 [52]
Rizzo et al. 2012 [61]
Fully custom-made orthopaedic footwear and semi-custom (extra depth + width off-the-shelf footwear)
Thin, seamless cotton socks
Arts et al. 2015 [39]
Lucro stock diabetic footwear (SDS) with toughened outer-sole with forefoot rocker Busch et al. 2003 [56]
Fully custom footwear manufactured with features of Ankle-high footwear, stiffened rubber outsole with rocker bottom sole.
Modification: Outsole rocker pivot point relocation and rocker angle
Bus et al. 2011 [30]
Toughened rocker profile rubber outsole, shoes or sandals with smooth leather, adjustable front and back straps for sandals or closed in footwear Charanya et al. 2004 [41]
Van Lier®, Netherlands, Outer sole shore type A: 86 Guldemond et al. 2007 [42]
Standard diabetic footwear (extra depth leather footwear, Dr. Foot Technology Co.,) Lin et al. 2013 [64]
Semi-rigid rocker sole (Wellwalk technology with Vibram Strips) and rigid rocker sole (reinforced with composite fibre). The rocker sole was anteroposterior rocker and pivot point behind the metatarsal heads with 20 ° rocker angle. The shoes had rigid heel counter, extra depth toe boxes (14 to 16 mm deeper than standard shoes), lace or buckle closures. López-Moral et al. 2019 [60]
SoleTech new footwear, style E3010 Mueller et al. 2006 [48]
Modular non-bespoke diabetic footwear with soft leather upper, plain vamp, secure fastening, microfibre lining material, padded collar, wall toe puff, EVA micro rubber sole unit with rocker where the apex is posterior to metatarsophalangeal joints line (County Orthopedic Footwear Ltd). Paton et al. 2012 [50]
Eight types of rocker sole configuration by two types of rocker angle 150 & 200 each for the apex positions of 52, 57, 62, 67% of footwear length.
(Duna, Italy)
Preece et al. 2017 [52]
Semi-rigid outer sole or stiff rocker sole, a stable heel counter, and adjustable laces or Velcro straps Tang et al. 2014 [53]
Custom-made insoles crafted for each individual foot Arts et al., 2012 [38]
Most frequent single modifications are replacement top cover of the insole, local cushioning of the insole, the addition of pad to the insole.
Combined modification of insole: Above items and removal of local materials as an addition.
Arts et al. 2015 [39]
Flat insoles with rear base: 420 Shore hardness and anterior base 200 Shore hardness 6 mm thick Lunasoft® and 3 mm overall top-cover of PPT with 170 Shore A hardness. Busch et al. 2003 [56]