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Table 2 Description of footwear interventions in included studies.

From: Effectiveness of therapeutic footwear for children: A systematic review

StudyDescription provided of therapeutic footwear intervention (s)
Corrective Therapeutic Footwear
 Chen et al (2015) [16]Orthopaedic shoe with an orthopaedic insole and hard heel cup (CTF)
 Kanatli et al (2016) [12]Custom made orthopaedic shoe, 0.5-0.9cm longitudinal arch support, 3-4mm heel wedges. (CTF)
 Wenger et al (1989) [37]Orthopaedic shoe, steel shank, Thomas heel, long medial heel counter, navicular pad (CTF)
Functional Therapeutic Footwear
Functional Stability
  Abd Elkader et al (2013) [14]Medical shoes same brand and model (brand/model not stated) with prefabricated arch insert (FSTF)
  Aboutorabi et al (2014) [11]Custom made, High-top shoes, wide toe box, internal heel counter, arch inlay (FSTF)
  Bakker et al (1997) [38]No details other than off the shelf orthopaedic footwear (FSTF)
  Basta et al (1977) [39]High topped, Steel Shank, firm counter (FSTF)
  Jagadamma et al (2009) [40]Custom made heel to forefoot wedged EVA sole adhesion, used alongside AFO. Wedges adjusted until shank to vertical angle reached 12°. (FSTF+AFO)
  Knittel and Staheli (1976) [41]Low cut shoe with 9 various sole modifications, medial forefoot wedge only (FSTF 1), lateral forefoot wedge only (FSTF 2), medial forefoot and medial rearfoot wedge
(FSTF 3), lateral forefoot and medial rearfoot wedge (FSTF 4), lateral forefoot and lateral rearfoot wedge (FSTF 5), medial rearfoot wedge only (FSTF 6), lateral rearfoot wedge only (FSTF 7), parallel torqheel (FSTF 8), circular torqheel (FSTF 9).
  Wesdock & Edge (2003) [42]Custom made Styrofoam wedged sole adhesion, wedge = vertical distance of posterior inferior elevated heel of the unaltered shoe from the floor when subject with crouch gait stood as erect as possible. (FSTF+AFO)
Functional Instability
  Ramstrand et al (2008) [43]Masai Barefoot Technologies, MBT unstable sole shoe. (FITF)
Functional Lift
  Eek et al (2017) [10]12 mm EVA sole adhesion divided into two parts heel and forefoot, (FLTF)
  Zabjek et al (2001) [44]Various sole lift adhesion 5mm, 10mm,15mm, (FLTF)
  1. AFO Ankle Foot Orthosis, CTF Correctional therapeutic footwear, FSTF Functional stability therapeutic footwear, FITF Functional instability therapeutic footwear, FLTF Functional lift therapeutic footwear