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Table 1 Details of the participants in the included studies

From: Effectiveness of therapeutic footwear for children: A systematic review

StudyDuration of StudyGroup Intervention and ComparatorsnConditionSex No. (%)Age (mean ± SD)Mass (mean kg ± SD)Height (mean m ± SD)BMI (mean kg/m2 ± SD)Outcomes
Corrective Therapeutic Footwear
 Chen et al. (2015) [16]44 monthsGroup 1 CTF and DB20Group 1 to 3 CTEV (not stated if idiopathic)
DiMeglio score ≤Moderate
♂12 (60)4.9 yrs. ±1.1a19.21.10Not reportedSkeletal geometry (3D laser scanning)
♀ 8 (40)3.60.11
Biomechanical (plantar pressure)
Group2 DB and Own footwear15♂9 (60)4.7 yrs. ±0.7a17.71.06
♀ 6 (40)2.50.74
Group 3 FAS and CTF18♂8 (44)4.9 yrs. ±1a19.31.10
♀10 (56)3.80.11
 Kanatali et al. (2016)mean 34.6 ± 10.9 monthsGroup 1 CTF21Flexible pes planus asymptomatic,♂33 (73)41.6 monthscNot reportedNot reportedNot reportedSkeletal geometry (radiographic)
Group 2 Own footwear24♀12 (27) b36 monthsc
 Wenger et al. (1989) [37]3 yearsGroup 1 CTF28dFlexible pes planus♂16 (57)32.2 months ±17cNot reportedNot reportedNot reportedSkeletal geometry (radiographic)
♀12 (43)
Group 2 SLF21d13 (62)27.2 months ±11.6c
♀8 (38)
Group 3 CTF with Helfet Heel Cup27d♂22 (81)28.7 months ±13.5c
♀5 (19)
Group 4 SLF with UCBL22d9 (41)28.2 months ±10.7c
♀13 (59)
Functional Therapeutic Footwear
Functional Stability
  Abd Elkader et al. (2013) [14]Within 1 dayGroup 1 BF, FSTF15Down's syndrome with flexible pes planus♂11 (36)3.67 yrs. ±0.7216.461.01 0.06916.01Biomechanical (spatiotemporal)
♀14 (47) b,e2.741.67
Group 2 BF, Foot Taping154.06 yrs. 0.8815.610.99 0.03215.49
  Aboutorabi et al. (2014) [11]Within 1 dayGroup 1 BF, FSTF, SLS with FO30Flexible pes planus♂18 (67)7.87 yrs. ±1.4531.4123.06 10.2520.2Biomechanical (spatiotemporal)
♀12 (33)5.741.58
Group 2, BF, FSTF, SLS with FO20Control, typically developing♂12 (60)7.8 yrs. ±1.3132.811.2819.87
♀8 (40)
  Bakker et al. (1997) [38]16 MonthsGroup 1 FSTF7Duchenne muscular dystrophy♂48 (100)Age range 5 to 12fNot reportedNot reportedNot reportedSecondary outcomes
Group 2 AFO20
Group 3 SF6
Group 4 KAFO5
Group 5 Own footwear41
  Basta et al (1977) [39]4 yearsGroup, 1, BF, FSTF, FSTF with CNP10Symptomatic flexible pes planusNot reportedAge Range 6.5 to 7 yearsfNot reportedNot reportedNot reportedSkeletal geometry (radiographic)
Group 2, BF, FSTF, FSTF with CNP,10
Group 3, BF, FSTF, FSTF with CNP, FSTF with PCNP,10
Group 4, BF, S, SLF with HB, SLF with CNP, FSTFWS6
Group 5 and 6 formed from groups 1 to 4, Four participants lost to follow up.
Group 5, BF, FSTF, FSTF with CNP Group16
6, BF, CNP, with Own footwear16
Group 7, BF, FSTF, FSTF with CNP,14
  Jagadamma et al (2009) [40]Within 1 dayOne group AFO and SSF, FSTF+AFO,5CP♂3 (60)9.7 yrs. ±3.5Not reportedNot reportedNot reportedBiomechanical (kinematic, kinetic, spatiotemporal)
♀2 (40)Range 5.6 to 12.6yrs.
  Knittel and Staheli (1976) [41]Not StatedOne group, SSF, Various forefoot and Rearfoot sole wedges, Torqheel,10In toeing♂4 (40)6.25 yrs. ±2.35Not reportedNot reportedNot reportedBiomechanical (kinematic)
♀6 (60)Range 3.5 to 10 yrs.
  Wesdock & Edge (2003) [42]8 weeksOne group, SSF, SSF and AFO, FSTF+AFO11CP♂4 (36)7 yrs. ±2.7Not reportedNot reportedNot reportedBiomechanical (spatiotemporal)
♀7 (64)Range 4 to 13.5 yrs.
Subset of Group 1 SSF, SSF and AFO, FSTF+AFO4CP Initial standing balance ≥15 seconds♂3 (75)6.5 yrs. ±2Not reportedNot reportedNot reported 
♀1 (25)Range 4.6 to 9.3 yrs.
Functional Instability
  Ramstrand et al (2008) [43]8 weeksOne Group FITF 8wk training program10CP + otherg♂6 (60)13.8 yrs. ±2.751.71 11.181.59Not ReportedBiomechanical (balance: static, dynamic)
♀4 (40)Range 10 to 17 yrs.0.11
Functional Lift
  Eek et al (2017)Within 1 dayGroup 1 BF, SSF, FLTF10Spastic CP with LLD ≥1cm♂6 (60)10.9 yrs. Range 7.8 to 12.838.61.42,Not ReportedBiomechanical (kinematic, spatiotemporal)
♀4 (40)Range 25.7-59.0Range 1.24-1.52
Group 2 BF, SSF10Control typically developing♂5 (50)10.7yrs35.11.48
♀5 (50)Range 7.1 to 14Range 18.7-49Range 1.20-1.67
  Zabjek et al (2001) [44]Within 1 dayOne Group, BF, FLTF46Idiopathic scoliosis♂9 (19.6)12yrs. ±2Not ReportedNot ReportedNot ReportedSkeletal Geometry (3D stereovideographic)
♀37 (80.4)
  1. Male, Female AFO Ankle Foot Orthosis, BF Barefoot, CNP Customised Navicular Pad, CP Cerebral Palsy, CTEV Congenital Talipes Equino Varus, CTF Corrective Therapeutic Footwear, DB Dennis Brown Splinted Footwear, FAS Forefoot Abduction Night Shoe, FIFT Functional Instability Therapeutic Footwear, FLTF Functional Lift Therapeutic Footwear, FSTF Functional Stability Therapeutic Footwear, FSTFWS Functional Stability Therapeutic Footwear Without Steel Shank, GMSF Gross Motor Functioning Score, HB heel block, KAFO Knee Ankle Foot Orthoses, LLD Limb Length Difference, PNP Prefabricated Navicular Pad, SF Standing Frame, SLF Standard Last Footwear, SSF Standard Sole Footwear, UCBL University of California Biomechanics Laboratory custom moulded Insert, aAge When tested, b Sex distribution amongst groups not reported, c Age at entry of study, dNumbers at end of study, emissing 17% Sex distribution not accounted for, f age range distribution amongst groups not reported, g variety of neurological and developmental conditions within group.