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Table 6 Mean contact area (SD) and comparisons in cm2 at the time of peak pressure for each of the 7 conditions (N = 36)

From: Effects of metatarsal domes on plantar pressures in older people with a history of forefoot pain

ConditionProximal maskBeneath maskDistal mask
Mean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-valueMean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-valueMean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-value
1. Control7.5
(3.3)
N/AN/A6.0
(0.5)
N/AN/A6.2
(0.4)
N/AN/A
2. Emsold metatarsal dome 5 mm proximal11.1
(2.0)
1, 4, 7
−3.6
(−5.0, − 2.1)
< 0.0015.9
(0.5)
0.1
(− 0.1, 0.3)
1.0006.1
(0.4)
0.1
(− 0.1, 0.2)
1.000
3. Emsold metatarsal dome in-line10.7
(2.5)
1, 7
−3.1
(−4.5, − 1.8)
< 0.0015.9
(0.4)
0.1
(− 0.1, 0.3)
1.0006.1
(0.4)
0.1
(−0.1, 0.2)
1.000
4. Emsold metatarsal dome 5 mm distal9.8
(2.5)
1, 2, 5
−2.2
(−3.4, −1.1)
< 0.0015.9
(0.5)
0.1
(− 0.1, 0.3)
1.0006.1
(0.4)
0.0
(−0.1, 0.1)
1.000
5. Langer PPT metatarsal pad 5 mm proximal11.2
(2.2)
1, 4, 7
−3.7
(−4.9, −2.5)
< 0.0015.9
(0.5)
0.1
(−0.1, 0.3)
1.0006.2
(0.4)
0.0
(0.0, 0.0)
1.000
6. Langer PPT metatarsal pad in-line10.3
(2.3)
1, 7
−2.8
(−4.6, −1.0)
< 0.0015.8
(0.5)
0.2
(−0.1, 0.4)
0.2936.1
(0.4)
0.0
(0.0, 0.1)
1.000
7. Langer PPT metatarsal pad 5 mm distal9.2
(2.6)
2, 3, 5, 6
−1.6
(−3.4, 0.1)
0.0815.9
(0.5)
0.1
(−0.1, 0.2)
1.0006.1
(0.4)
0.1
(−0.1, 0.2)
1.000
  1. Notes: Proximal mask positioned proximal to the metatarsal heads; Beneath mask positioned beneath the metatarsal heads; Distal mask positioned distal to the metatarsal heads. Full results and pairwise comparisons for all conditions are contained in Additional file 3 (contact area results are presented to 3 decimal places in Additional file 3)
  2. Abbreviations: 1 significantly different from control condition; 2 significantly different from Emsold proximal; 3 significantly different from Emsold in-line, 4 significantly different from Emsold distal; 5 significantly different from Langer proximal; 6 significantly different from Langer in-line, 7 significantly different from Langer distal