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Table 5 Mean maximum force (SD) and comparisons in Newtons (N) at the time of peak pressure for each of the 7 conditions (N = 36)

From: Effects of metatarsal domes on plantar pressures in older people with a history of forefoot pain

ConditionProximal maskBeneath maskDistal mask
Mean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-valueMean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-valueMean
(SD)
Mean diff. (95% CI)P-value
1. Control39.5
(35.4)
N/AN/A75.5
(33.0)
N/AN/A121.3 (26.8)N/AN/A
2. Emsold metatarsal dome 5 mm proximal54.9
(17.8)
−15.4
(−32.9, 2.1)
0.14157.9
(17.5)
1, 4, 7
17.6
(2.9, 32.3)
0.008108.3 (23.3)
1
13.0
(3.0, 23.1)
0.003
3. Emsold metatarsal dome in-line55.6
(22.6)
1
−16.1
(−31.1, − 1.2)
0.02560.7
(18.6)
1, 7
14.8
(2.2, 27.5)
0.011107.6 (23.1)
1
13.7
(6.3, 21.1)
< 0.001
4. Emsold metatarsal dome 5 mm distal51.5
(21.5)
1
−11.9
(−22.9, −0.9)
0.02465.7
(20.0)
2
9.9
(−0.8, 20.5)
0.095105.1 (22.4)
1
16.2
(8.0, 24.3)
< 0.001
5. Langer PPT metatarsal pad 5 mm proximal61.6
(26.5)
1
−22.1
(−36.6, −7.5)
< 0.00161.7
(21.6)
1
13.8
(2.6, 25.0)
0.006109.6 (27.4)
1
11.7
(4.4, 18.9)
< 0.001
6. Langer PPT metatarsal pad in-line57.8
(25.7)
−18.3
(− 39.3, 2.8)
0.15561.8
(18.9)
7
13.7
(−0.3, 27.8)
0.061105.1 (23.7)
1
16.2
(8.7, 23.7)
< 0.001
7. Langer PPT metatarsal pad 5 mm distal50.6
(19.7)
−11.1
(−31.3, 9.1)
1.00067.1
(18.2)
2, 3, 6
8.4
(−5.9, 22.8)
1.000104.3 (22.8)
1
17.0
(9.0, 25.1)
< 0.001
  1. Notes: Proximal mask positioned proximal to the metatarsal heads; Beneath mask positioned beneath the metatarsal heads; Distal mask positioned distal to the metatarsal heads. Full results and pairwise comparisons for all conditions are contained in Additional file 2
  2. Abbreviations: 1 significantly different from control condition; 2 significantly different from Emsold proximal; 3 significantly different from Emsold in-line, 4 significantly different from Emsold distal; 5 significantly different from Langer proximal; 6 significantly different from Langer in-line, 7 significantly different from Langer distal