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Table 3 Clinically relevant fractures seen on radiography compared to point-of-care bedside ultrasound and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the sonographers and expert in significant fractures

From: Point-of-care bedside ultrasound examination for the exclusion of clinically significant ankle and fifth metatarsal bone fractures; a single blinded prospective diagnostic cohort study

 SonographerExpert
FractureNo FractureFractureNo Fracture
Fracture Xray28 (80%)7 (20%)29 (83%)6 (17%)
No fracture Xray12 (10%)111 (90%)1 (1%)122 (99%)
Sensitivity80.0% (95% CI 63.0–91.6%)82.8% (95% CI 66.3–93.4%)
Specificity90.3% (95% CI 83.7–94.9%)99.2% (95% CI 95.5–99.9%)
PPV70.0% (95% CI 57.0–80.3%)96.7% (95% CI 80.3–99.5%)
NPV94.1% (95% CI 89.1–96.9%)95.3% (95% CI 91.0–98.2%)