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Table 3 Psychological characteristics and psychosocial examination results of 209 Saudi diabetic patients by diabetic foot ulcer statusa

From: Associations of foot ulceration with quality of life and psychosocial determinants among patients with diabetes; a case-control study

 Diabetic foot ulcersTotal (N = 209)Magnitude of difference bp-value
Yes (n = 45)No (n = 164)
Family history of psychiatric illness
 No36 (90.0%)141 (88.1%)177 (88.5%)> 0.99
 Yes4 (10.0%)19 (11.9%)23 (11.5%)0.83 (0.26–2.58) 
Visit to psychiatrist
 No33 (75.0%)149 (90.9%)182 (87.5%)0.005
 Yes11 (25.0%)15 (9.1%)26 (12.5%)3.31 (1.40–7.86) 
Psychological/behavioral therapy
 No33 (82.5%)149 (93.1%)182 (91.0%)0.058
 Yes7 (17.5%)11 (6.9%)18 (9.0%)2.87 (1.04–7.97) 
Psychiatric medications
 No30 (75.0%)148 (93.1%)178 (89.4%)0.002
 Yes10 (25.0%)11 (6.9%)21 (10.6%)4.49 (1.75–11.50) 
Social support from family or friends
 No10 (25.0%)33 (20.8%)43 (21.6%)0.062
 Yes29 (72.5%)99 (62.3%)128 (64.3%)0.97 (0.43–2.19) 
 Somewhat1 (2.5%)27 (17.0%)28 (14.1%)0.12 (0.02–1.02) 
Psychological deterioration after diagnosis of diabetes
 No21 (52.5%)93 (58.1%)114 (57.0%)0.771
 Yes10 (25.0%)38 (23.8%)48 (24.0%)1.17 (0.50–2.71) 
 Somewhat9 (22.5%)29 (18.1%)38 (19.0%)1.37 (0.57–3.33) 
Improved family relationship after diagnosis of diabetes
 No9 (22.5%)54 (33.8%)63 (31.5%)0.216
 Yes23 (57.5%)68 (42.5%)91 (45.5%)2.03 (0.87–4.75) 
 Somewhat8 (20.0%)38 (23.8%)46 (23.0%)1.26 (0.45–3.57) 
Quality of life; WHOQOL-BREF (mean ± SD)
 Domain 1: Physical health67.1 ± 19.271.1 ± 16.470.2 ± 17.1−4.0 (−9.7–1.7)0.263
 Domain 2: Psychological75.4 ± 14.978.0 ± 13.377.4 ± 13.7−2.6 (−7.1–2.0)0.384
 Domain 3: Social relationships77.3 ± 16.577.5 ± 17.577.4 ± 17.3−0.2 (−5.9–5.5)0.712
 Domain 4: Environment75.1 ± 16.774.7 ± 13.874.8 ± 14.50.4 (−4.4–5.2)0.672
 Overall quality of life and general health75.6 ± 13.275.1 ± 17.275.2 ± 16.40.4 (−5.0–5.9)0.891
 Total: All above domains73.2 ± 12.474.8 ± 12.074.4 ± 12.1−1.5 (− 5.5–2.5)0.539
Anxiety; HAD anxiety
 Mean ± SD4.7 ± 4.64.1 ± 4.44.2 ± 4.50.6 (−0.9–2.1)0.355
 Normal 0–734 (75.6%)134 (81.7%)168 (80.4%)0.357
 Anxiety > 711 (24.4%)30 (18.3%)41 (19.6%)1.45 (0.66–3.17) 
Depression; HAD depression
 Mean ± SD5.7 ± 4.34.7 ± 3.74.9 ± 3.91.0 (−0.3–2.3)0.200
 Normal 0–730 (66.7%)127 (77.4%)157 (75.1%)0.139
 Depression > 715 (33.3%)37 (22.6%)52 (24.9%)1.72 (0.84–3.53) 
Somatic symptoms; PHQ-15
 Mean ± SD6.8 ± 5.78.5 ± 6.28.1 ± 6.1−1.6 (−3.7–0.4)0.114
 Minimal severity (0–4)18 (40.0%)59 (36.0%)77 (36.8%)0.213
 Low severity (5–9)16 (35.6%)40 (24.4%)56 (26.8%)1.31 (0.60–2.87) 
 Medium severity (10–14)7 (15.6%)33 (20.1%)40 (19.1%)0.70 (0.26–1.84) 
 High severity (≥15)4 (8.9%)32 (19.5%)36 (17.2%)0.41 (0.13–1.32) 
Self-Management; SDSCA (mean ± SD)
 Diet44.8 ± 39.329.2 ± 36.932.6 ± 37.915.5 (3.1–28.0)0.011
 Exercise17.1 ± 26.118.7 ± 27.218.4 ± 26.9−1.6 (−10.5–7.4)0.351
 Blood sugar testing55.4 ± 37.936.1 ± 37.240.2 ± 38.119.3 (6.9–31.7)0.003
 Foot care50.8 ± 35.723.4 ± 33.729.2 ± 35.927.4 (16.0–38.8)< 0.001
 Total42.2 ± 20.327.2 ± 21.230.4 ± 21.815.0 (8.0–22.0)< 0.001
  1. a Number (frequency) unless noted otherwise. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, WHOQOL-BREF World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment, HAD Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale, PHQ-15 the Patient Health Questionnaire Physical Symptoms; SDSCA Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities. b Magnitude of difference between cases and control; odds ratio (for categorical data) or mean difference (for continuous data) plus 95% confidence interval. Empty cells means reference group