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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of 209 Saudi diabetic patients by diabetic foot ulcer statusa

From: Associations of foot ulceration with quality of life and psychosocial determinants among patients with diabetes; a case-control study

 Diabetic foot ulcersTotal (N = 209)Magnitude of difference bp-value
Yes (n = 45)No (n = 164)
Type of diabetes
 Type 14 (8.9%)33 (20.1%)37 (17.7%)0.21 (0.06–0.75)0.033
 Type 229 (64.4%)110 (67.1%)139 (66.5%)0.46 (0.20–1.05) 
 Unknown12 (26.7%)21 (12.8%)33 (15.8%) 
HbA1c
 Mean ± SD9.9 ± 2.78.4 ± 2.08.6 ± 2.21.5 (0.3–2.7)0.016
  ≥ 818 (78.3%)53 (54.1%)71 (58.7%)3.06 (1.05–8.89)0.034
  < 85 (21.7%)45 (45.9%)50 (41.3%) 
Age at diagnosis of diabetes37.6 ± 12.042.7 ± 12.041.6 ± 12.1−5.1 (−9.1--1.1)0.014
Family history of diabetes
 No14 (31.1%)46 (28.0%)60 (28.7%)0.688
 Yes31 (68.9%)118 (72.0%)149 (71.3%)0.86 (0.42–1.77) 
Symptoms
 Peripheral tingling23 (52.3%)68 (42.5%)91 (44.6%)1.48 (0.76–2.89)0.248
 Peripheral numbness35 (79.5%)78 (48.8%)113 (55.4%)4.09 (1.85–9.06)< 0.001
 Peripheral hypo- or hyperthermia20 (45.5%)70 (43.8%)90 (44.1%)1.07 (0.55–2.10)0.840
 Peripheral painlessness17 (38.6%)16 (10.0%)33 (16.2%)5.67 (2.55–12.57)< 0.001
 Peripheral edema10 (22.7%)39 (24.4%)49 (24.0%)0.91 (0.41–2.02)0.821
 Tiredness without working15 (34.1%)80 (50.0%)95 (46.6%)0.52 (0.26–1.04)0.061
 Blurred vision20 (45.5%)54 (33.8%)74 (36.3%)1.64 (0.83–3.22)0.153
 Nocturnal dyspnea4 (9.1%)27 (16.9%)31 (15.2%)0.49 (0.16–1.49)0.203
 Loss of concentration13 (29.5%)35 (21.9%)48 (23.5%)1.50 (0.71–3.17)0.288
 Amputation10 (22.7%)0 (0.0%)10 (4.9%)NA< 0.001
Number of comorbid diseases
 Mean ± SD2.9 ± 1.92.8 ± 2.02.8 ± 2.00.1 (−0.5–0.8)0.702
 None5 (11.1%)19 (11.7%)24 (11.5%)0.715
 One or two16 (35.6%)68 (41.7%)84 (40.4%)0.89 (0.29–2.76) 
 Three or more24 (53.3%)76 (46.6%)100 (48.1%)1.20 (0.41–3.56) 
Comorbidity
 Hypercholesterolemia20 (44.4%)97 (59.5%)117 (56.3%)0.54 (0.28–1.06)0.071
 Hypertension28 (62.2%)76 (46.6%)104 (50.0%)1.89 (0.96–3.71)0.064
 Joint diseases10 (22.2%)61 (37.4%)71 (34.1%)0.48 (0.22–1.03)0.057
 Cataracts11 (24.4%)32 (19.6%)43 (20.7%)1.32 (0.61–2.90)0.480
 Cardiovascular diseases12 (26.7%)29 (17.8%)41 (19.7%)1.68 (0.78–3.64)0.185
 Retinal disease14 (31.1%)20 (12.3%)34 (16.3%)3.23 (1.47–7.08)0.002
 Gastrointestinal disease5 (11.1%)26 (16.0%)31 (14.9%)0.66 (0.24–1.83)0.420
 Lung disease5 (11.1%)24 (14.7%)29 (13.9%)0.72 (0.26–2.02)0.536
 Anemia4 (8.9%)25 (15.3%)29 (13.9%)0.54 (0.18–1.64)0.269
 Renal disease4 (8.9%)15 (9.2%)19 (9.1%)0.96 (0.30–3.06)> 0.99
 Others14 (31.1%)34 (20.9%)48 (23.1%)2.14 (0.68–6.74)0.148
  1. a Number (frequency) unless noted otherwise; SD standard deviation. b Magnitude of difference between cases and control; odds ratio (for categorical data) or mean difference (for continuous data) plus 95% confidence interval. Empty cells means reference group; NA, difference cannot be calculated